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Glossary of Chapter 3 - Cells

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cyt
cell
cytoplasm
the fluid (cytosol) and organelles that occupy the space between the cell membrane and nuclear envelope
Endo
with in
endoplasmic reticulum
a complex of membranous structures within the cytoplasm
hyper
above
hypertonic
a solution that has a greater concentration of dissolv particles than another solution example: extracellular fluid
hypo-
below
hypotonic
a solution that has lesser concentrat dissolved particles than another solution
inter-
between
Interphase
the stage that occurs between mitotic divisions of cells
iso-
equal
isotonic
a solution that has a concentration of dissolved particles equal to that of another solution
mit
thread
mitosis
division of a somatic cell to form two genetically identical cells
phag
eat
phagocytosis
membrane engulfs solid particles from surroundings (cellular energy)
Examaple: white blood cell engulfing bacterial cell
pino
to drink
pinocytosis
membrane and goals tiny droplets of liquid from surroundings (cellular energy)
Example: membrane forming vesicles containing liquid and dissolved particles
som
body
ribosome
a tiny, spherical organelle consisting of protein and RNA
active transport
carrier molecules move molecules or ions through membranes for regions of lower concentrations towards regions of higher (cellular energy)
Example: movement of various ions, sugars, and amino acids through membranes
centrosome
cellular organelle consisting of two centrioles
chromosome
rodlike structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell's nucleaus during mitosis
differentiation
cell specialization due to differential gene expression
diffusion
molecules or items moved from regions of higher concentration towards regions of lower concentration (molecular motion)
Example: O2 and CO2 exchange
endocytosis
process by which a cell membrane envelops a substance and draws it into the cell in a vesical
equilibrium
state of balance between two opposing forces
exocytosis
vesical fuses with membrane to expel substances from cell (cellular energy)
Example: secretion of certain hormones
facilitated diffusion
carrier molecules move molecules, through membrane from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration (molecular motion)
Example: movement of glucose through cell membrane
filtration
molecules are forced from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure (hydrostatic pressure)
Example: water molecules leading blood capillaries
Golgi apparatus
an organelle that prepares cellular products for secretion
lysosome
oorganelle that contains digestive enzymes
mitochondrion
organelle housing enzymes that catalyze reactions of aerobic respiration
nucleolus
small structure within cell nucleus that contains RNA and proteins
nucleus
cellular organelle enclosed by double-layered, porous membrane and containing DNA
osmosis
water molecules move from regions of higher concentrations towards regions of lower through a selectively permeable membrane (molecular motion)
Example: distilled water entering a cell
selectively permeable
describes membrane that allows some molecules through and not others; semipermeable
vesicle
membranous cytoplasmic sacformed by infolding of cell membrane
cell membrane

structure
membrane composed of proteins and lipid molecules
cell membrane

function
maintains integrity of cell and controls passage of materials into and out of cells
endoplasmic reticulum

structure
complex of interconnected membrane-bound sacs and canals
endoplasmic reticulum

function
transports materials within cell, provide attachment for ribosomal, and synthesizes lipids
ribosomes

structure
particles composed of protein and ofRNA molecules
ribosomes

function
synthesize proteins
Golgi apparatus

structure
group of flattened, membranous sacs
Golgi apparatus

function
packages proteins molecules for transport and secretion
mitochondria

structure
membranous sacs within inner partitions
mitochondria

function
release energy from nutrient molecules and transform energy into usable form
lysosome

structure
membranous sacs
lysosome

function
Digest worn cellular parts or substances that enters cells
centrosome

structure
not membranous structure, composed of two rodlike centrioles
centrosome

function
help distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell reproduction
cilia and flagella

structure
motile projections attached beneath the cell membrane
Celia and flagella

function
propelled fluid over cellular services, and enable sperm cells to move
vesicles

structure
membranous sacs
vesicles

function
contain various substances
microfilaments and microtubules

structure
thin rods and tubules
microfilaments and microtubules

function
support the cytoplasm and help move substances and organelles within the cytoplasm
nuclear envelope

structure
double membrane that separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm
nuclear envelope

function
maintains integrity of nucleus and controls the passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleolus

structure
dense, non-membranous body composed of proteins and RNA molecules
nucleolus

function
site of ribosome synthesis
Chromatin

structure
Fibers comsposed of protein and DNA molecules
Chromatin

function
contains information for synthesizing proteins

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