Glossary of Chapter 3: The Middle Ages
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- When were the Middle Ages and why were they called the Dark Ages?
- 400 - 1400 CE. The Church and the Bible were the only source of learning.
- What "savage invaders" caused the collapse of Western Europe?
- Germanic tribes: GOTHS under ODACER invaded Rome. ANGLES,SAXONS, FRANKS. VIKINGS from Scandenavia.
- Who was Leif Erikson?
- VIKING warrior/sailor; discovered NORTH AMERICA(at Newfoundland) 500 years before Columbus.
- Who was Charlemagne?
- "Charles the Great", KING of FRANKS, established the LARGEST EMPIRE since Rome.
- Why did Europeans give up control of trade to the Muslims during the Middle Ages? What was the effect on Europeans?
- Germanic invaders were FARMERS, not seamen. No trade=no money=turmoil,hard times and collapse of kingdoms.
- What was feudalism?
- A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL SYSTEM that allowed Europeans to survive during the Middle Ages.
- How were feudal estates set up?
- Ruled by LORDS, defended by KNIGHTS, farmed by SERFS.
- What were the three social classes during the Middle Ages? Which eventually became most powerful?
- NOBLES, BISHOPS & PRIESTS, PEASANTS. Bishops became most powerful.
- How did the Church become so powerful during the Middle Ages?
- It took over SERVICES FO GOVERNMENT. Lords often paid for services with REAL ESTATE. Church became largest landowner.
- Why did Pope Gregory excommunicate King Henry IV?
- Power struggle between Pope and King: Henry tried to appoint Bishops and the Pope claimed only he could do that.
- What contributions did nuns and monks make during the Middle Ages.
- Cared for the POOR and kept LEARNING and ART alive.
- What led to the revival of towns and trade in Europe?
- END of INVASIONS & INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION = POPULATION BOOM. People moved to towns, started up new towns, started trading with each other.
- How did the Middle Class begin?
- Townspeople free to become ARTISANS & MERCHANTS who made their own MONEY.
- What caused the decline of feudalism?
- People moved off the manor to TOWNS; through TRADE people didn't need estates' products as much.
- What kind of rulers replaced feudal lords?
- Strong MONARCHIES (Kings and Queens).
- Name two important Kings and their contributions.
- 1. WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - became King of England in 1066 after BATTLE OF HASTINGS. 2. HENRY II - Most powerful English King; established GREAT COUNCIL, COMMON LAW and TRIAL BY JURY.
- What was the Magna Carta?
- KING JOHN forced to sign "GREAT AGREEMENT" with nobles saying NO TAXES without nobles' agreement and guaranteeing FAIR TRIALS.
- What were the Crusades?
- In 1096 POPE URBAN sent military expeditions to take back HOLY LAND from Muslims because DEUS LO VOLT (God wills it.)
- What was the Children's Crusade?
- 1212 - thousands of children sent to the Crusades; most DIED or sold as SLAVES; none reached Palestine.
- How did the Crusades lead to trade with the East?
- Europeans got a look at the LUXURIES there (SPICES, silk, china)and ADVANCED CULTURE (science, medicine) and WANTED THEM.
- Who led in trade with the East?
- VENICE because they had kept their contacts with CONSTANTINOPLE (capital of Turkey) during the Middle Ages. All the soldiers left from there for the Crusades.
- Who was Marco Polo?
- "Merchant of Venice" whose book "Travels of Marco Polo" introduced Europeans to the wonders of the East.
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