Glossary of Chapter 3: The Middle Ages

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When were the Middle Ages and why were they called the Dark Ages?
400 - 1400 CE. The Church and the Bible were the only source of learning.
What "savage invaders" caused the collapse of Western Europe?
Germanic tribes: GOTHS under ODACER invaded Rome. ANGLES,SAXONS, FRANKS. VIKINGS from Scandenavia.
Who was Leif Erikson?
VIKING warrior/sailor; discovered NORTH AMERICA(at Newfoundland) 500 years before Columbus.
Who was Charlemagne?
"Charles the Great", KING of FRANKS, established the LARGEST EMPIRE since Rome.
Why did Europeans give up control of trade to the Muslims during the Middle Ages? What was the effect on Europeans?
Germanic invaders were FARMERS, not seamen. No trade=no money=turmoil,hard times and collapse of kingdoms.
What was feudalism?
A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL SYSTEM that allowed Europeans to survive during the Middle Ages.
How were feudal estates set up?
Ruled by LORDS, defended by KNIGHTS, farmed by SERFS.
What were the three social classes during the Middle Ages? Which eventually became most powerful?
NOBLES, BISHOPS & PRIESTS, PEASANTS. Bishops became most powerful.
How did the Church become so powerful during the Middle Ages?
It took over SERVICES FO GOVERNMENT. Lords often paid for services with REAL ESTATE. Church became largest landowner.
Why did Pope Gregory excommunicate King Henry IV?
Power struggle between Pope and King: Henry tried to appoint Bishops and the Pope claimed only he could do that.
What contributions did nuns and monks make during the Middle Ages.
Cared for the POOR and kept LEARNING and ART alive.
What led to the revival of towns and trade in Europe?
END of INVASIONS & INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION = POPULATION BOOM. People moved to towns, started up new towns, started trading with each other.
How did the Middle Class begin?
Townspeople free to become ARTISANS & MERCHANTS who made their own MONEY.
What caused the decline of feudalism?
People moved off the manor to TOWNS; through TRADE people didn't need estates' products as much.
What kind of rulers replaced feudal lords?
Strong MONARCHIES (Kings and Queens).
Name two important Kings and their contributions.
1. WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - became King of England in 1066 after BATTLE OF HASTINGS. 2. HENRY II - Most powerful English King; established GREAT COUNCIL, COMMON LAW and TRIAL BY JURY.
What was the Magna Carta?
KING JOHN forced to sign "GREAT AGREEMENT" with nobles saying NO TAXES without nobles' agreement and guaranteeing FAIR TRIALS.
What were the Crusades?
In 1096 POPE URBAN sent military expeditions to take back HOLY LAND from Muslims because DEUS LO VOLT (God wills it.)
What was the Children's Crusade?
1212 - thousands of children sent to the Crusades; most DIED or sold as SLAVES; none reached Palestine.
How did the Crusades lead to trade with the East?
Europeans got a look at the LUXURIES there (SPICES, silk, china)and ADVANCED CULTURE (science, medicine) and WANTED THEM.
Who led in trade with the East?
VENICE because they had kept their contacts with CONSTANTINOPLE (capital of Turkey) during the Middle Ages. All the soldiers left from there for the Crusades.
Who was Marco Polo?
"Merchant of Venice" whose book "Travels of Marco Polo" introduced Europeans to the wonders of the East.

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