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Glossary of Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry Must Knows

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What is the name of this molecule?
Methane

What is the name of this molecule?
Ethane

What is the name of this molecule?
Butane

What is the name of this molecule?
Propane.
What is the molecular formula for pentane?
C5 H12
What is the molecular formula for hexane?
C6 H14
What is the molecular formula for heptane?
C7 H16
What is the molecular formula for octane?
C8 H18
What is the molecular formula for nonane?
C9 H20
What is the molecular formula for decane?
C10 H22
What specific conformation does the prefix "iso-" refer to?

Carbon connected to two branching methyl groups

What group does this three dimensional model represent?

The isopropyl group.

What is the name of this molecule?

Isobutane

What is this molecule named?

Isopentane

What is the name of this molecule?

Neopentane

What is the name of the group attached to the bromine in this picture?

The tert-butyl group

What is the name of the group attached to the benzene ring in this picture?

Isobutyl groups

What group is attached to the cyclohexane in this picture?

Sec-butyl group

What group is attached to the amide in this picture?

n-butyl group
What are the IUPAC rules for naming alkanes?
1. Find the longest continuous carbon chain and give it the name per IUPAC rules.
2. List the substituents attached to the longest continuous carbon chain in alphabetical order.
3. Use the di, tri, tetra when the same substituent appears more than once.
4. Number the chain in the direction which gives the lower locant to a substituent at the first point of difference.
5. When two different numbering directions give the same number of locants, number in the direction that gives the lowest locant to the group that appears first in the name.
6. When two chains are of equal length, choose the one with the greater number of substituents as the parent
What are the IUPAC rules for naming cycloalkanes?
1. Count the number of carbons in the ring this is the base name of the ring.
2. Name the alkyl group and append it as a prefix to the cyclohexane. No locant is needed if it is monosubstituted.
3. When two or more different substituents are present, list them in alphabetical order, and number the ring in the direction than gives the lower number at the first point of difference.
4. Name the compound as a cycloalkyl substituted alkane if the substituent has more carbons than the ring.
What are the IUPAC rules for naming alkyl groups?
1. Number the carbons beginning at the point of attachment, proceeding in the direction that follows the longest chain.
2. Assign a base name according to the number of carbons in the correspondinb unbranched/cycloalkane and replace the -ane ending with -yl.
3. List the substituents attached to the base group in alphabetical order using replicating prefixes when necessary.
4. Locate substituents according to the numbering of the main chain described in the rules for naming alkanes.
What are sigma bonds?
Head on bonds, they bond on a line that connects the two nuclei.
What are pi bonds?
Side to side bonds, they connect above and below the line that connects the two bonding nuclei.
What are the associated characteristics of an sp3 hybridized orbital?
Neighboring atoms: 4
Sigma Bonds: 3
Pi Bonds: 2
VSEPR Structure: Tetrahedral
What are the associated characteristics of an sp2 hybridized orbital?
Neighboring atoms: 3
Sigma Bonds: 2
Pi Bonds: 1
VSEPR Stucture: Trigonal Planar
What are the associated characteristics of an sp hybridized orbital?
Neighboring atoms: 2
Sigma Bonds: 2
Pi Bonds: 2
VSEPR Structure: Linear

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