Glossary of Chapter 2 Measuring Earth

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What is the order of solid layers on Earth?
Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core.
The closer the isolines on a contour map, the ____ the slope.
What are lines connecting points of equal elevation?
contour lines
What are isolines?
Lines connecting points of equal value on a map.
What are parallels of latitude?
Circles on which all points are the same angular distance from the equator and have the same latitude. These lines are horizontal on a map.
What is the atmosphere?
A relativly thin shell of gases held to Earth by gravity, that surrounds Earth. It is made of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with the remaining 1%mostly argon, carbon dioxide, helium, and water vapor.
What is a mental model?
A mental model represents ideas or images of something in your mind that you are trying to understand. An example of this is the mental model of the solar system, because you cant travel in it.
T or F: The Altitude of Polaris is opposite the observer's latitide.
False: The Altitude of Polaris is equal to the observer's latitude.
What is a laboratory model?
They are used to simulate natural events. An example of this is a stream table.
What is the hydrosphere?
The thin layer of water resting on the lithosphere, which covers about 70% of the Earth's surface.
What is the outer core od Earth composed by?
The lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
What is a coordinate system?
A system of imaginary lines. These lines form an earth-grid like on a football field. The coordinate system is the latitude-longitude system, and is based on earth's rotation, the sun and the stars.
What is latitude?
The distance in degrees, north or south of the equator. The reference point for latitude is the equator.
To measure latitude at night in the northern horizen you measure the __________.
Altitude of Polaris
At what rate does the Earth rotate on its axis?
15 degrees/hour
What is circumference of the earth?
Circumference is the distnce around the earth.
What is longitude?
The distance,in degrees, measured east or west of the Prime Meridian. As one travels east or west from the Prime Meridian the longitude increases.
What is a mathmatical model?
Mathmatical models are formulas and equations used in science courses, such as the density equation. Mathmatical models explain certain properties of a material or system.
What is the lithosphere?
The rock near Earth's surface which forms a continuous solid shell around Earth.
What is a physical model?
A physical model uses observations of sight to provide us with information. An example is a geographical globe for a model of the earth
What are points of equal barometric pressure on a weather map?
What are lines connecting equal temperature?
What is gradiant or slope?
The rate of change of a feild quantity between two places.
What is a graphic model?
A graphic model uses graphs to simplify certain relationships.
What is a topographic map (contour map)?
A two dimensional model, which shows elevations of various points on Earth's surface.
What is a model?
A model is a smaller copy or representation of a system. We use models to help explain events. An example is models of the solar system, to explain the motions of the planets.

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