Glossary of Chapter 28: The Rest of the RNA viruses
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- What are the arboviruses (describe and list)?
- Arthropod borne viruses - togaviridae, flaviviridae, and bunyaviridae (think Paul BUNYAn in a TOGA, bitten by a mosquito (arthropod) who likes the FLAVor of his blood)
- Rubivirus is from which class of viruses? What disease does it cause and what is its most feared manifestation?
- Togaviridae (group of arboviruses).
Causes rubella, which can cause terrible congenital defects (think toRches)
- Which body areas are affected in congenital rubella?
- 1. Heart (PDA, septal defects, etc.)
2. Eye (cataracts, etc)
3. CNS (mental retardation, microcephaly, etc)
- Dengue fever: symptoms, cause?
- Fever, painful backache, muscle and joint pain, and sever headache.
Flavivirus (an arbovirus) spread by mosquito
- Poliovirus and Coxsackie A and B are examples of which type of viruses?
- Enterovirus (picornavirus)
- Enteroviruses infect which cell types?
- Intestinal epithelial and lymphoid (tonsils, Peyer's patches) cells
- Why did polio emerge in the 20th century?
- Improvements in sanitation led to increased infection in the adult years (rather than childhood), with increased chances of developing paralytic poliomyelitis
- What are the 3 disease manifestations of polio?
- 1. Asymptomatic or mild fever
2. Aseptic meningitis - recovery in 1 week
3. Paralytic poliomyelitis
- Which polio vaccine is used in the US?
- Sabin's attenuated poliovirus
- Coxsackie A and B, echoviruses, and new enteroviruses can all cause which diseases?
- 1. Asymptomatic or mild febrile infections
2. Cold symptoms
4. Aseptic meningitis
- What is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in the US?
- Differentiate Coxsackie A and B in terms of clinical manifestations?
- Coxsackie A - Herpangina (mild self-limiting illness)
Coxsackie B - Pleurodynia (pleuritic pain), Myocarditis/Pericarditis
- Which viruses cause the common cold?
- Rhinovirus and coronavirus
- Which viruses cause diarrhea?
- Calciviridae and Rotavirus
- Describe the progression of rabies?
- When a human is bitten, the virus replicates locally for a few days, then migrates (over weeks to a year) up nerve axons to the CNS, causing a fatal encephalitis
- How should a person bitten by a suspected rabid animal be treated? This regimen is similar to which other infectious disease?
- Give human rabies immune globulin (passive immunization) followed by injections of the killed rabies virus vaccine (active immunization). Similar to treatment of tetanus.
- How can Ebola epidemics be controlled?
- Barrier precautions to avoid contact with infected body fluids, use of sterile needles, and proper disposal of corpses.
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