Glossary of Chapter 26: Herpesviridae
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- What characteristics do the herpes viruses have in common?
- 1. Can develop a latent state - sensory ganglia
2. Sub-family alpha members have a cytopathic effect on cells, which become multinucleated giant syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
3. Herpes viruses are held at bay by cell mediated immunity
- What are the alpha sub group herpes viruses?
- HSV1 and HSV2, varicella-zoster
- Which herpes viruses have less cytopathic effects than the alpha sub group viruses?
- CMV and EBV
- Clinical symptoms, when present, of HSV1 infections are...?
- 1. gingivostomatitis
2. reactivation - during stressed states, AIDS patients
3. Herpetic keratitis - corneal blindness
- What is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in the US?
- HSV 1
- HSV2 often causes which types of disease, in contrast to HSV1?
- Genital disease that is sexually transmitted
- What organisms can cross the blood-placenta barrier?
- Think TORCHES:
TO - TOxoplasmosis
R - Rubella
C - Cytomegalovirus
HE - HErpes, HIV
S - Syphilis
- VZV causes which diseases?
- Varicella and herpes zoster
- What is the course and clinical manifestations of varicella infection?
- Fever, malaise, and headache, followed by characteristic rash - red base with fluid-filled vesicles.
- Describe the localization of zoster infection?
- During reactivation, the latent VZV replicates and migrates to the peripheral nerves, causing burning and painful skin lesions in a dermatotomal distribution.
- What is the most common viral cause of mental retardation?
- What are the infectious states caused by CMV?
- 1. Asymptomatic infection
2. Congenital disease
3. CMV mononucleosis
4. Reactivation in the immunocompromised patient
- Distinguish the CMV diseases in AIDS patients versus bone marrow transplant patients?
- AIDS patients - CMV viremia, CMV retinitis, and CMV colitis
Transplant patients - CMV pneumonitis
- EBV causes?
- Mononucleosis and Burkitt's lymphoma
- Describe EBV infection?
- EBV infects human B-cells, which transform and proliferate. The immune system eventually destroys the infecting virus as well as the abnormal B cells.
- Describe the clinical manifestations of "mono"?
- Fever, chills, sweats, headaches, and a very painful pharyngitis. Enlarged lymph nodes and sometimes an enlarged spleen.
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