Glossary of Chapter 23 - Respiratory System

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includes four components;
ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs;
gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood;
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood;
gas exchange between the blood and the tissues
List five functions of the respiratory system.
1) Gas exchange
2) Regulation of blood pH
3) Voice production
4) Olfaction
5) Protection
Upper respiratory tract
refers to the nose, pharynx, and associated structures
Lower respiratory tract
refers to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Nose (nasus)
consists of the external nose and the nasal cavity
External nose
the visible structure that forms a prominent feature of the face
Nasal cavity
part of the nose that extends from the nares to the choanae
the external openings of the nasal cavity
the openings of the nasal cavity into the pharynx
the anterior part of the nasal cavity, just inside each naris
Hard palate
a bony plate covered by a mucous membrane that forms the floor of the nasal cavity; separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Nasal septum
a partition dividing the nasal cavity into right and left parts;
anterior part is made of cartilage and the posterior part is composed of the vomer bone and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
bony ridges that modify the lateral walls of the nasal cavity, beneath each lies a meatus
passageways that lie beneath each conchus;
openings from the paranasal sinuses open into the superior and middle meatus;
openings from the nasolacrimal duct open into the the inferior meatus
List the main funcitons of the nasal cavity.
exists as a passageway for air that's open even when the mouth is full of food;
cleans the air, the vestibule is lined with hairs that trap large particles of dust;
humidifies and warms the air;
the olfactory epithelium is located in the most superior part of the nasal cavity;
the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
the common opening of both the digestive and respiratory tracts;
divided into three regions, the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx
located posterior to the choanaeand superior to the soft palate
Soft palate
an incomplete muscle and and connective tissue partition separating the nasopharynx from the oropharynx; prevents swallowed materials from entering the nasopharynx and nasal cavity
the posterior extension of the soft palate
region of the pharynx that extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis
the opening from the oral cavity into the oropharynx
region of the pharynx that extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the esophagus and passes posterior to the larynx
located in the anterior part of the throat; connected by membranes and/or muscles superiorly to the hyoid bone and inferiorly to the trachea; consists of an outer casing of nine cartilages that are connected to one another by muscles and ligaments
Name the three unpaired cartilages and six paired cartilages that form the larynx.
thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis
arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform
the vocal folds and the opening between them
Vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
these come together to prevent food and liquids from entering the larynx during swallowing and prevent air from leaving the lungs, as when a person holds their breath
Vocal folds (true vocal cords)
a mucous membrane the covers the inferior laryngeal ligaments and makes noise as air is forced through the glottis
List the three important functions of the larynx.
the thyroid and cricoid cartilages maintain an open passageway for air movement;
the epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into the larynx;
the vocal folds are the primary source of sound production
also known as the windpipe;
a membranous tube that consists of dense regular connective tissue and smooth muscle reinforced with 15-20 C-shaped pieces of cartilage that support the trachea and maintain an open airway
Trachealis muscle
bundles of smooth muscle that lie on the non-cartilagenous side of the trachea and when contracted, can decrease the diameter of the trachea;
contracted when coughing to try and expel particles through the quicker movement of air through the smaller opening
a ridge that separates the openings into the main bronchi; formed by the most inferior tracheal cartilage
Primary bronchi
two smaller tubes into which the trachea divides, each of which extends to a lung
Tracheobronchial tree
all the respiratory passageways from the trachea onward; can be divided into the conducting and the respiratory zone based on function
Conducting zone
extends from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles; about 16 generations of branching occur; funcitons as a passageway for air movement and contains epithelial tissue (pseudostratiried ciliated columnar epithelium) that helps to remove debris from the air and to move it out of the tracheobroncial tree
Lobar (secondary) bronchi
primary bronchi give rise to secondary bronchi; two secondary bronchi in the left lung, three in the right lung
Segmented (tertiary) bronchi
secondary bronchi give rise to numerous tertiary bronchi, which gives rise to bronchioles
one of the finer subdivisions of the bronchial tubes, less than 1mm in diameter; has no cartilage in its wall, but does have relatively more smooth muscle and elastic fibers
Respiratory zone
extends from the termainl bronchioles to the alveoli; contains about 7 generations of branching; sites of gas exchnage between the air and lungs
Alveolar duct
part of the respiratory passages beyond the respiratory bronchioles; from it arise alveolar sacs and alveoli
Alveolar sac
two or more alveoli that share a common opening
Passageway of air from outside the body to the blood
Mouth - trachea - main bronchi - lobar bronchi - segmented bronchi - bronchiole - terminal bronchiole - respiratory bronchiole - alveolar duct - alveolar sac/alveoli
Type I pneumocytes
one of two types of cells that form the alveolar walls; thin, squamous epithelial cells that form 90% of the alveolar surface; cells through which most gas exchange occurs
Type II pneumocytes
one of two types of cells that form the alveolar walls; round or cube-shaped secretory cells that produce surfactant, which makes it easier for alveoli to expand during inspiration
Respiratory membrane
the location in the lungs where gas exchange occurs; primarily formed by alveolar walls and surroudning pulmonary capillaries; it contains:
1. a thin layer of fluid lining the alveolus
2. alveolar epithelium composed of simple squamous epithelium
3. basement membrane of the alveolar epithelium
4. a thin interstitial space
5. the basement membrane of the capillary endothelium
6. capillary endothelium composed of simple squamous epithelium
principle organs of respiration; among the largest organs of the body
a region on the medial surface of the lung, where structures, such as the main bronchus, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels, enter or exit the lung; area also referred to as "the root of the lung"
right lung has three lobes, the left lung has two; lobes are separated by deep, prominent fissures on the surface of the lung; and each is supplied by a lobar bronchus
Bronchopulmonary segments
lobar subdivisions which are supplied by the segmental bronchi; nine are present in the left lung, ten in the right lung
Bronchopulmonary segments are divided into lobules by incomplete connective tissue walls

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