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Glossary of Chapter 19 - Cancer Medicine

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fungating
mushrooming patttern of growth; tumor cells pile one on top of another and project from a tissue surface; tumors found in teh colon are often this type
polypoid
grwoths that are like projections extending outward from a base
sessile polypoid tumors
extend from a broad base; coudl be benign or malignant
pedunculated
possessing a stem or stalk (peduncle); characteristic of some polypoid tumors
scirrhous
microscopic description of densely packed, fibrous tumor cell composition
grade
degree of maturity or differentiation under microscope
stage
extent of spread within the body
modality
method of treatement
adjuvant
aid
en bloc resection
tumor is removed along with a large area of surrounding tissue containing lymph nodes; modified radical mastectomy, colectomy, and gasterectomy are examples
excisional biopsy
removal of tumor and a margin of normal tissue; produce provides a specimen for diagnosis and may be curative for small tumors
exenteration
wide resection invovling removal of the tumor, its organ of irign, and all surroudning tissue in the body space; pelvic exenteration may be performed to treat large primary tumors of the uterus
fulguration
destruction of tissue by electric sparks generated by a high-frequency current
incisional biopsy
piece of tumor is removed for examination to establish a diagnosis
linear accelerator
device that produces high energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors
morbidity
a degree of residual normal cell damage (side effect of radiation therapy
radiocurable tumor
tumros that can be completely eradicated by raditaion therapy; usually has no metastasis
radioresistant tumor
tumor that requires large doses of radiation to produce death of cells; connective tissue tumors are most radioresistant
radiosensitive tumor
tumor in which irradiation can cause death of cells without serious damage to surrounding tissue
alopecia
baldness; usually permanent with radiation
fibrosis
increase in connective tissue in the lungs
mucositis
inflammation and ulceration of mucous membranes in the mouth, pharynx, vagina, baldder, large or small intestine
myelosuppression
bone marrow depression; anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia
nausea and vomiting
reaction to radiation ot hte brain (vomiting center located in the brain) or gastorintestinal tract
pneumonitis
inflammation of lungs
xerostomia
dryness of mouth; occurs after radiation to salivary glands
pharmocokinetics
measuring amoutn of drug present over tiem in various body compartments
protocol
explicit, detailed plan for treatment
remission
absence of symptoms of disease
apoptosis
programmed cell-death
estrogen receptors
breast cancers have this; these tumors repsond to removal of estrogen by oophorecotmy or use of antiestrogen drugs like tamoxifen, which block estrogenic efffects
interferons
made by lymphocytes; tries to prevent viral replicaiton and induce resistance to vrial antigens
aduvant therapy
assistanting primary treament; drugs given early in course of treatment, along with surgery or radition
anaplasia
loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive cell type
grading of tumors
evaultion of degree of maturity of tumor cells
mixed-tissue tumors
tumros compsoed of different types of tissue (epithelial as well as connective tissue)
mutation
change in genetic material (DNA) fof a cell
oncogene
a region of DNA foudn in tumor cells
pharmacokinetics
study of distribution and removal of drugs form body of period of time
relapse
return of symptoms of disease
sarcoma
canceorus tumor derived from connective tissue
sessile
having no stem; characteristic of some polypoid tumors
staging o tumors
system of evaluatin extent of spread of tumors; TNM system (tumor, node,s and mtastasis)
viral oncogenes
pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant
fung/i
fungus, mushroom
scirrh/o
hard
exfoliative cytology
cells are scraped from the region of suspected disease and examined under a microscope
laparoscopy
visual examination of abdominal cavity using small incisions and a laparoscope; also known as peritoneoscopy
CEA
carcinoembryonic antigen
PSA
prostate-specific antigen

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