Glossary of Chapter 17 Cell Biology
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- actin filament
- protein filament about 7 nm wide formed from a chain of globular acim molecules. A mjor costituent of cytoskeleton. Abundant in muscle cells
- cell cortex
- specialized layer of cytoplasm on the inner face of the plasma membrane. In animal cells it is an actin rich layer responsible for cell surface movements
- short cylindrical array of microtubules, usually found in pairs at the center of centrosomes in animal cells. Also found at the base of cilia and flagella.
- centrally located organelle of animal cells that is the primary microtubule organizing center and acts as the spindle pole during mitosis. In most animal cells it contains a pair of centrioles.
- hairlike extension on the surface of a cell with a core bundles of mt and capable of performing repeated beating movmt of fluid over epithelial cells
- system of protein filaments in the cytoplasm of a cell that gives the cell shape and the capacity for directed mvmt.
- dynamic instability
- the property shown by mt of growing and shrinking repeatedly through the addition oand loss of tubulin subunits from their exposed ends.
- member of a family of large motor proteins that undergo ATP dependent movement along microtubules. Dynein is responsible for the bending of cilia.
- long thin actin containing extension on teh surface of an animal cell. sometimes has an exploratory function, as in a growth cone.
- long, whiplike protrusion tha tdrives a cell through a fluid medium by its beating. Eucaryotic flagella are longer versions of cilia; bacteria are different and simpler.
- intermediate filament
- fibrous protein filament that forms ropelike networks in animal cells often used as a structural element that resists tension applied to teh cell from outside.
- one member of a large family of motor protein that uses the entergy of ATP hydrolysis to move along a microtubule.
- dynamic sheetlike extension on the surface of an animal cell, especially one migrating over a surface.
- long, stiff cylindrical structure, composed of the protein tubulin. Used by eucaryotic cells to regulate their shape and control their mvmt.
- motor protein
- protein such as myosin or kinesin that uses energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to propel itself along a protein filament or polymeric molecule.
- type of motor protein that uses ATP to drive movements along actin. Forms the thick filaments of skeletal muscle. responsible for many actin based movements.
- nuclear lamina
- fibrous layer on the inner surface of the inner nuclar membrane made up of a network of intermediate filaments made from nuclear lamins.
- refers to a structure such as an actin filament or a fertilized egg that hasa n inherent direction so that one can distinguish one end from the other.
- Rho protein family
- Family of monomeric GTPases involved in signaling the rearangement of the actin cytoskeleton
- repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, about 2.5 micrometer long composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments.
- protein from which microtubules are made.
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