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Glossary of Chapter 17 - Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

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What is an *Antipsychotic Drug*?
Drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
What are *Antidepressant Drugs*?
Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mod disorders, especially depression and anxiety.
What are *Tranquilizers*?
Drugs commonly but often inappropriately prescribed for patients who complain of unhappiness, anxiety, or worry.
Whit is *Lithium Carbonate*?
A drug frequently given to people suffering from bipolar disorder.
Define *Placebo Effect*:
The apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patient's expectations or hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself.
What is *Psychosurgery*?
Any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain believed to be involved in emotional disorders or disturbed behavior.
What is *Electroconvulsive Therapy*:
ECT is a procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced.
Define *Psychoanalysis*:
A method of "depth" psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious motives and conflicts through free association to memories and dreams, in order to achieve insight.
Define *Free Association*:
In psychoanalysis, the process of saying freely whatever comes to mind in connection with dreams, memories, fantasies, or conflicts.
What is *Psychodymamic Therapy*?
Psychotherapies that explore the unconscious dynamics of personality, such as defenses and conflicts.
Define *Transference*:
In psychodynamic therapies, a critical process in which the client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions onto the therapist.
Define *Behavior Therapy*:
A form of therapy that applies principles and techniques of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating or problematic behaviors.
Define *Systematic Desensitization*:
In behavior therapy, a step-by=step process of desensitizing a client to a feared object or experience; it si based on the classical-conditioning procedure or counterconditioning.
Define *Exposure or Flooding*:
In behavior therapy, a method in which a person suffering from an anxiety disorder, such as a phobia or panic attacks, is taken directly into the feared situation until the anxiety subsides.
What are *Behavioral Records*?
In behavior therapy, a method of keeping careful data on the frequency and consequences of the behavior to be changed.
What are *Skills Training*?
In behavior therapy, an effort to teach the client skills that s/he may lack, as well as new, more constructive behaviors to replace self-defeating ones.
Define *Cognitive Therapy*:
A form of therapy designed to identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking and hence to reduce negative emotions and their behavioral consequences; it is often combined with behavioral techniques.
What is *Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy*?
REBT, A form of cognitive therapy devised by Albert Ellis, designed to challenge the client's unrealistic or irrational thoughts.
Define *Humanist Therapy*:
A form of psychotherapy based on the philosophy of humanism, which starts from the assumption that people seek self-actualization self-fulfillment; it emphasizes people's free will to change, not past conflicts.
What is *Client Centered (nondirective) therapy?
A humanist approach to therapy devised by Carl Rogers, which emphasizes the therapist's empathy with the client, the therapists' ability to see the world as the client does, and the used of unconditional positive regard.
Define *Existential Therapy*:
A form of therapy designed to help clients explore the meaning of existence and face the great questions of life, such as death, freedom, free will, alienation, and loneliness.
What is *Family-Systems Perspective*?
An approach to doing therapy with individuals or families by examining how each member forms part of a larger, interacting system.
Define *Therapuetic Alliance*:
The bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and client, which allows them to work together to solve the client's problems.
Define *Randomized Controlled Trials*:
Research designed to determine the effectiveness of a new medication or form of therapy, in which people with a given problem or disorder are randomly assigned to one of more treatment groups or to a control group.

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