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Glossary of Chapter 17: Anti-Ribosomal Antibxs

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Describe the bacterial ribosome?
70S particle with a 50S and 30S subunit
List the important anti-ribosomal antibiotics?
Chloramphenicol, clindamycin, linezolid, erythromycin, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides.
Which anti-ribosomal antibxs cannot be absorbed orally?
Aminoglycosides
List two drugs that can kill Bacteroides fragilis?
Chloramphenicol and clindamycin
Chloramphenicol kills which bacteria?
Most clinically important bacteria - gram (+), gram (-), and anaerobes. (Like pouring chlorine on the organisms)
What's the problem with using chloramphenicol?
Rare but severe side effects - aplastic anemia, Gray Baby Syndrome.
Where is chloramphenicol use clinically indicated?
1. Bacterial meningitis with unknown organisms and patient penicillin/cephalosporin allergies.
2. Young children and pregnant women with Rocky Mountain spotted fever who cannot be treated with tetracycline.
Why do surgeons use clindamycin and aminoglycoside combos for penetrating wound infections of the abdomen?
Clindamycin covers the anaerobes, while aminoglycosides cover the aerobic gram (-)s.
What is the important adverse effect that clindamycin can cause?
Pseudomembranous colitis, due to wiping out the natural flora of the GI tract, which can cause an opportunistic C. dificile infection.
Which drug is a last resort for VRE?
Linezolid
What are erythromycin's clinical uses?
Gram positives, Mycoplasma, and the gram (-) Legionella and Chlamydia (atypicals). Drug of choice for community-acquired pneumonia that does not require hospitalization.
What drug is used as an alternative to doxycycline for the treatment of chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis?
Azithromycin
What are the clinical uses of doxycycline/tetracycline?
Think: Tet offensive.
1. Venereal diseases caused by chlamydia trachomatis.
2. Walking pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma
3. Animal and tick-borne diseases caused by Brucella and Rickettsia
What are the adverse effects of doxycycline?
GI irritation, phototoxic dermatitis, renal/hepatic toxicity, depressed bone growth and brown teeth of babies and children.
Why are aminoglycosides combined with penicillin?
Penicillin breaks down the cell wall to allow aminoglycosides to diffuse into the cell.
What are the clinical uses of aminoglycosides?
Aerobic gram (-) enteric organisms, including Pseudomonas.
What is the most commonly used of all the aminoglycosides?
Gentamycin
What are the side effects of aminoglycosides?
Think: "a mean guy."
1. Eighth cranial nerve toxicity
2. Renal toxicity
3. Neuromuscular blockade

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