Glossary of Chapter 15 Personality

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An individual's distinct and relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors
in psychoanalysis, a primitive and unconscious part of personality that contains basic drives and operates according to the pleasure principle
Pleasure principle
The id's boundless drive for immediate gratification
the part of personality that consists of one's moral ideals and conscience
the part of personality that operates according to the reality principle and mediates the conflict between the id and superego
Reality principle
The ego's capacity to delay gratification
psychosexual stages
Freud's stages of personality development during which pleasure is derived from different parts of the body (oral, anal, phallic, and genital)
Oedipus complex
A tendency for young children to become sexually attracted to the parent of the opposite sex and hostile toward the parent of the same sex
The process by which children internalize their parent's values and form a superego
a tendency to get "locked in" at an early, immature stage of psychosexual development
Defense mechanism
unconscious method of minimizing anxiety by denying and distorting reality
A defense mechanism in which personally threatening thoughts, memories, and impulses are banned from awareness
A primitive form of repression in which anxiety-filled external events are barred from awareness
a DM in which people attribute or "project" their own unacceptable impulses onto others
Reaction formation
DM in which one converts an unacceptable feeling into its opposite.
DM that involves making excuses for one's failures and shortcomings
The channeling of repressed sexual and aggressive urges into socially acceptable substitute outlets
collective unconscious
As proposed by Jung, a kind of memory bank that stores images and ideas that humans have accumlatedover the course of evolution
Projective tests
Psychoanalytic personality tests that allow people to "project" unconscious needs, wishes, and conflicts onto ambiguous stimuli
A projective personality test in which people are asked to report what they see in a set of inkblots
Thematic Apperception TAT
a projective personality test in which people are asked to make up stories from a set of ambiguous pictures
Cognitive-social learning theory
An approach to personality that focuses on social learning (modeling), acquired cognitive factors (expectancies, values) and the person-situation interaction
The social-learning process by which behavior is observed and imitiated.
Locus of control
A term referring to the expectancy that one's reinforcets are generally controlled by internal or external factors
The belief that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome
Reciprocal determinism
The view that personality emerges from a mutal interaction of individuals, their actions, and their environments
Humanistic theory
An approach to personality that focuses on the self, subjective experience, and the capacity for fulfillment
Unconditional positive regard
A situation in which the acceptance and love one recieeves from significant others is unqualified
Conditional positive regard
A situation in which the acceptance and love one recieves from significant others is contingent upon one's behavior
Self Schemas
Specific beliefs about the self that influence how we interpret self-relevant information
A positive or negative evaluation of the self
Self-discrepancy theory
The notion that discrepancies between one's self concept and "ideal" and "ought"selves have negative emotional consequences
In humanistic personality theories, the need to fulfull one's unique potential
Peak experience
a fleeting but intense moment of self-actualization in which people feel happy, absorbed, and extraordinarily capable.
A relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way
Five factor model
A model of personality that consists of five basic traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
A large scale test designed to measure a multitude of psychological disorders and personality traits

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