Glossary of Chapter 13 Social influences

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Social psychology
The study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in social situations
social perception
The processes by which we come to know and evaluate other persons
Attribution theory
A set of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior
Fundamental attribution error
A tendency to overestimate the impact of personal causes of behavior and to overlook the role of situations
Primacy effect
The tendency for impressions of others to be heavily influenced by information appearing early in an interaction.
mere-exposure effect
The attraction to a stimulus that results from increased exposure to it
A tendency to alter one's opinion or behavior in ways that are consisten with group norms
Informational influence
Conformity motivated by the belief that others are correct
normative influence
Conformity motivated by a fear of social rejection
A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to any person, object, or idea
Central route to persuasion
A process in which people think carefully about a message and are influenced by its arguments
Peripheral route to persuasion
A process in which people do not think carefully about a message and are influenced by superficial cues
Cognitive dissonance
An unpleasant psychological state often aroused when people behave in ways that are discrepant with their attitudes
Social facilitation
The tendency for the presence of others to enhance performance on simple tasks and impair performance on complex tasks
Social Loafing
The tendency for people to exert less effort in group tasks for which individual contributions are pooled
Group think
A group decision making style by which members convince themselves that they are correct
Behavior intended to inflict harm on someone who is motivated to avoid it
Frustration-Aggression hypothesis
The theory that frustration causes aggression
A loss of individuality often experienced in a group, that results in a breakdown of internal restraints against deviant behavior
Helping behavior that is motivated primarily by a desire to benefit others, not oneself
Empathy-Altruism hypothesis
The proposition that an empathetic response to a person in need produces an altruistic helping
bystander effect
the finding that the presence of others inhibits helping in an emergency
Diffusion of responsibility
In groups, a tendency for bystanders to assume that someone else will help

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