Glossary of Chapter 13 Chemical Bonding

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the joining of atoms to form new substances
chemical bonding
an interaction that holds 2 atoms together
chemical bond
when these bonds form, electrons are shared, gained, or lost
chemical bonds
_____ of an atom are organized into energy levels
the ___ energy level is closest to the nucleus and can hold 2 electrons
the __ energy level fills after the 1st is full, and can hold 8 electrons
the ___ energy level will fill up after the 1st and 2nd energy levels are full and can hold 8 electrons
the electrons in the outermost energy level, will bond
valence electrons
atoms that have a ____ outer energy level usually doesn't combine
a diagram used to show valence electrons
electron-dot diagram
a bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another (between metals and nonmetals)
ionic bond
an atom is ______ because the number of electrons in an atom equals the number of protons; the charges cancel each other out
charged particles that form when atoms gain or lose electrons
atoms of most _____ tend to lose their electrons and form positive ions
energy needed to pull electrons away from ions comes from the formation of _____________
negative ions
______ are almost full, so ________ atoms tend to gain electrons and become negative ions
energy is _____ when nonmetals gain electrons
given off
a _____ ____ will form between a nonmetal and a metal if the nonmetal releases more energy than is needed to take electrons from the metal
ionic bond
the ions that bond are ___, but the compound formed is _____ because the ions cancel each other out
charged; neutral
when ions bond they form a repeating 3-d pattern called a __ ___
crystal lattice
name 3 properties of ionic bonds
high melting points
high boiling points
forms when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
covalent bonds
3 properies of covalent bonds
brittle in solid state
low melting points
low boiling points
usually form between atoms of nonmetals
convalent bonds
something covalently bonded
2 or more atoms joined together in a definite ratio
way to represent atoms and molecules
electron-dot diagram
smallest particle into which a covalently bonded compound can be divided and still be the same substance
molecules made up of 2 atoms of the same element
diatomic molecule
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons in that metal
metallic bond
electrons move throughout the metal
metallic bond
allows metals to conduct electric current
metallic bonding
atoms in a ___ can be rearranged or bent
when a piece of metal is bent, some of the metal ions are forced ____ ___
closer together

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