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Glossary of Chapter 12, Psychology by Myers 7th Edition

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Hierarchy of needs?
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Organizational psychology?
A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
Theory X?
Assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.
Incentive?
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Flow?
A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology?
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Personnel psychology?
A subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Structured interviews?
Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
Achievement motivation?
A desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.
Task leadership?
Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
Social leadership?
Goal-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Theory Y?
Assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
Motivation?
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Instinct?
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Drive-reduction theory?
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Homeostasis?
A tendency to maintain a balanced or internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.

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