Glossary of Chapter 10 Vocabulary Words
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- A test whereby the physician withdraws a sample of amniotic fluid from a woman's pregnant uterus. The fluid is then tested for genetic or other conditions that may lead to abnormal development of the fetus.
- Microscopic structures found within the nucleus of plant and animal cells that carry genes responsible for the organism's characteristics.
- An organism grown asexually, usually from a single cell of the parent.
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
- The combination of proteins called nucleotides that comprises an organism's chromosomes.
- emancipated minors
- Individuals in their mid- to late teens who legally live outside of parents' or guardians' control.
- A tiny segment of DNA found on a cell's chromosomes. Each gene holds the formula for making a specific molecule.
- genetic counselor
- An expert in human genetics who is qualified to counsel individuals who may have inherited genes for certain diseases or conditions.
- genetic discrimination
- Differential treatment of individuals based on their actual or presumed genetic differences.
- genetic engineering
- Manipulating DNA within the cells of plants and animals, to ensure that certain harmful traits will be eliminated in offspring and that desirable traits will appear and be passed on.
- The study of heredity.
- All the genetic information necessary to create a human being or any other organism.
- The process by which organisms pass genetic traits on to their offspring.
- heterologous artificial insemination
- Donor sperm is mechanically injected into a woman's vagina to fertilize her eggs.
- homologous artificial insemination
- The husband's sperm is mechanically injected into his wife's vagina to fertilize her eggs.
- Human Genome Project
- A scientific project, funded by the US government, begun in 1990 for the purpose of mapping all of a human's genes and successfully completed in 2000.
- in vitro fertilization (IVF)
- Fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body, literally, "in glass," as in a test tube.
- mature minors
- Individuals in their mid- to late teens who, for health care purposes, are considered mature enough to comprehend a physician's recommendations and give informed consent.
- parens patriae
- A legal doctrine that gives the state the authority to act in a child's best interest.
- safe haven laws
- State laws that allow a mother to abandon a newborn at a fire station, police station, or hospital without legal prosecution or with reduced legal prosecution.
- stem cells
- Early embryonic cells that have the potential to become any type of body cells.
- A woman who becomes pregnant, usually by artificial insemination or surgical implantation of a fertilized egg, and bears a child for another woman.
- Transplanting animal tissues and organs into humans.
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