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Glossary of Chapter 10 Muscles

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Abdomen
Belly, between the thorax and the pelvis is referred to as the abdomen.
Abdominal cavity
The space between the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet that contains the abdominal viscera is referred to as the abdominal cavity.
Abdominal
Pertaining to the portion of the body between the diaphragm and the pelvis is called abdominal.
Abdominopelvic cavity
The space between the diaphragm and the lower portion of the trunk of the body is referred to as the abdominopelvic cavity.
Abduct
To move away from the midline of the body is called abduct.
Abduction
Movement of a body part away from the midline is abduction.
Ability
Ability refers to the capability of developing a skill or learning a task
Acetabulum
Cup-shaped depression on the external surface of the coxa is an acetabulum.
Acromion
Bone comprising the tip of the shoulder is called acromion.
Action
The movement produced by the contraction of a particular muscle is called action.
Adduct
To move toward the midline of the body is called adduct.
Adduction
Movement of a body part toward the midline is an adduction.
Agonist
Agonist refers to a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effects.
Aids
Aids refers to a fatal disease transmitted by transfer of the human immunodeficiency virus, usually during sexual relations or by using needles previously infected by an HIV positive person
Anal canal
The most distal two or three inches of the large intestine that open to the outside as the anus is referred to as the anal canal.
Anal sphincters
Anal sphincters refers to a group of two sphincters that help control expulsion of feces from the body.
Anatomical position
A body posture with the body erect, the face forward, the arms at the sides with the palms facing forward, and the toes pointing straight ahead is referred to as the anatomical position.
Anatomy
Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts is referred to as anatomy.
Antagonist
A muscle that acts in opposition to a prime mover is an antagonist.
Antecubital
The region in front of the elbow joint is an antecubital.
Anterior
Pertaining to the front is referred to as anterior.
Anus
Inferior outlet of the digestive tube is the anus.
Aorta
Major systemic artery that receives blood from the left ventricle is referred to as the aorta.
Aponeurosis
A sheet of connective tissue by which certain muscles are attached to adjacent muscles is an aponeurosis.
Artery
A vessel that transports blood away from the heart is an artery.
Aspect
A particular view of the body or one of its structures, or a part that faces in a particular direction, such as the anterior aspect is referred to as an aspect.
Attachment
Attachment refers to the enduring affectional tie that binds one person to another.
Attachments
The psychological bonds between infants and caregivers are referred to as attachments.
Attention
Attention refers to the concentration and focusing of mental effort
Axes
Axes refer to several dimensions for which information is provided in DSM-IV diagnosis protocols-for example, clinical disorders and medical conditions.
Axial skeleton
Portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the organs of the head, neck, and trunk is called the axial skeleton.
Axillary
Pertaining to the armpit is called axillary.
Base
A substance that ionizes in water to release hydroxyl ions or other ions that combine with hydrogen ions is a base.
Belly
The thick part of a skeletal muscle between its origin and insertion is called a belly.
Benefits
Valued health outcomes or improvements in quality of life or social conditions having some known relationship to health promotion or health-care interventions are called benefits.
Biceps
Two-headed, especially applied to certain muscles is referred to as biceps.
Blow
Street term for cocaine hydrochloride is called blow.
Bolus
A mass of matter, especially food or feces traveling through the digestive tract is bolus.
Bone
Rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates is the bone.
Boundary
Boundary refers to the specification of who may occupy a particular status.
Calcaneal tendon
A thick tendon at the heel that attaches the triceps surae muscles to the calcaneus is a calcaneal tendon.
Capsule
The fibrous covering of a structure such as the spleen or a diarthrosis is a capsule.
Cardiac
Related to the heart is referred to as cardiac.
Cartilage
Cartilage refers to type of connective tissue in which cells are located within lacunae and are separated by a semisolid matrix.
Center
According to Piaget, to focus one's attention is referred to as center.
Central
Located relatively close to the medial axis of the body, as in the central nervous system is referred to as central.
Cervical vertebrae
The seven vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck are called the cervical vertebrae.
Cervical
Pertaining to the neck or to the cervix of the uterus is called cervical.
Change
Change refers to in brainwashing, the point at which a person begins to reject former attitudes and beliefs.
Cheek
Side of the face forming the lateral wall of the mouth is a cheek.
Chronic
Chronic refers to long lasting. Pertaining to a disease that progresses slowly and has a long duration. Compare with with acute.
Circumduction
Movement of a body part, such as a limb, so that the end follows a circular path is referred to as circumduction.
Class
Most sociologists use the term to refer to socioeconomic differences between groups of individuals which create differences in their life chances and power is referred to as a class.
Clavicle
The collarbone, between the sternum and scapula is the clavicle.
Clitoris
Small erectile organ located in the anterior portion of the vulva is a clitoris.
Communication
The transmission of information from one individual or group to another is referred to as communication.
Compartment
A space occupied by a group of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves that is enclosed by fasciae is referred to as a compartment.
Concentric
Concentric refers to having the same center.
Conditioning
Processes by which behaviors can be learned or modified through interaction with the environment are conditioning.
Condyle
A rounded process of a bone, usually at the articular end is called a condyle.
Connective tissue
Connective tissue refers to one of the basic types of tissue that includes bone, cartilage, blood, loose and fibrous connective tissue.
Consideration
Consideration refers to a supervisory style characterized by concern with the well-being of subordinates
Construction
Includes all units mainly engaged in constructing buildings, roads, railroads, aerodromes, irrigation projects, harbors or river works, water, gas, sewerage or storm water drains or mains, electricity or other transmission lines or towers, pipelines, or oil is referred to as construction.
Contraction
Contraction refers to shorten or develop tension, an ability highly developed in muscle cells.
Control
Techniques used to reduce the effects of extraneous variables on results and to ensure greater certainty that the changes in the dependent variable result from the independent variable are control.
Contusion
A contusion is a deep muscle bruise.
Convergent
Coming together, as in a convergent muscle and a converging neuronal circuit is referred to as convergent.
Coracoid
Coracoid refers to resembling a crow's beak, such as, a process on the scapula.
Coronoid
Shaped like a crow's beak, such as, a process on the mandible is called coronoid.
Corpus
Body or mass is referred to as corpus.
Costal cartilage
A bladelike plate of hyaline cartilage that attaches the distal end of a rib to the sternum is referred to as the costal cartilage.
Costal
Costal refers to pertaining to the ribs.
Cranial nerve
Nerve that arises from the brain is the cranial nerve.
Crest
A ridge-like projection of a bone is a crest.
Criterion
Criterion refers to a standard of comparison. For performance appraisal, it is the definition of good performance.
Critical thinking
An approach to thinking characterized by skepticism and thoughtful analysis of statements and arguments-for example, probing arguments' premises and the definitions of terms is critical thinking.
Cues
Cues refers to environmental events or objects that prompt behavior.
Cuneiform
Wedge-shaped, as in the cuneiform cartilages of the larynx and cuneiform bone of the wrist is referred to as cuneiform.
Defecation
The discharge of feces from the rectum through the anus is called defecation.
Depression
Downward displacement is a depression.
Description
Description refers to in scientific research, the process of naming and classifying.
Diaphragm
A sheet-like structure largely composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities is called a diaphragm.
Diet
The types and amounts of food and drink regularly consumed over a period of time is called a diet.
Digestive system
System that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes is referred to as digestive system.
Digit
Digit refers to a finger, thumb, or toe.
Dislocation
Dislocation occurs when bones are forced out of their normal alignment at a joint.
Distal
Farther from the midline or origin is called distal.
Dorsal
Toward the backside of the body is called dorsal.
Dorsiflexion
Bending the foot upward is called dorsiflexion.
Dorsum
Dorsum refers to pertaining to the back surface of a body part.
Elements
Elements refers to substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical processes. Common elements in nutrition include carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and iron.
Elevation
Elevation refers to upward movement of a part of the body.
Enabling
Enabling refers to actions by anyone, especially relatives and friends, that allow addicts or abusers to continue their addictive behavior. It includes denial, codependence, paying off debts, lying to protect them, or providing money.
Epicondyle
A projection of a bone located above a condyle is referred to as the epicondyle.
Erection
Erection refers to the filling of tissues with blood making the structure rigid and elevated.
Escape
Reducing discomfort by leaving frustrating situations or by psychologically withdrawing from them is referred to as escape.
Esophagus
Tubular portion of the digestive tract that leads from the pharynx to the stomach is referred to as esophagus.
Eversion
Outward turning movement of the sole of the foot is referred to as eversion.
Expiration
Expulsion of air from the lungs is referred to as expiration.
Extension
Movement increasing the angle between parts at a joint is referred to as extension.
External anal sphincter
Ring of striated muscular fibers surrounding the anus is called external anal sphincter.
Extrinsic
Originating externally, such as extrinsic blood-clotting factors is referred to as extrinsic.
Eyebrow
Short hairs on the bony ridge above the eyes are referred to as eyebrow.
Eyelid
Palpebra is referred to as the eyelid.
Factors
In psychometric approaches to intelligence, a set of related mental skills that underlies intellectual functioning are referred to as factors.
Familiar
In witchcraft, a supernatural spirit often embodied in an animal and at the service of a person is familiar.
Fascia
Fascia refers to a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that encloses a muscle.
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle or nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue are called a fascicle.
Fashion
A temporary standard of appearance or behavior considered to be socially acceptable or desirable is a fashion.
Feces
Feces refer to material expelled from the digestive tract during defecation.
Femoral
Pertaining to the thigh is referred to as femoral.
Fiber
A slender threadlike structure or filament is called a fiber.
Fix
Fix refers to hold a structure in place. To preserve a tissue by means of a fixative.
Fixator
Muscle that stabilizes the origin of a prime mover is referred to as fixator.
Flexion
Bending at a joint to decrease the angle between bones is referred to as flexion.
Foramen
An opening, usually in a bone or membrane is referred to as foramen.
Force
That which produces a motion in the body is a force.
Forceps
A curved instrument that fits around the head of the baby and permits it to be pulled through the birth canal is referred to as forceps.
Fossa
A depression in a bone or other part is referred to as fossa.
Fracture
A break in a bone is a fracture.
Front
In the dramaturgical approach, a person's physical appearance and behavior, that helps define the situation, is referred to as a front.
Frontal
Pertaining to the forehead is called frontal.
Fulcrum
Pivot point is called a fulcrum.
Function
Function refers to in developmental psychology, action related to a structure, such as movement of a muscle, firing of a nerve, or activation of a mental representation
Functions
The ways in which a sociocultural trait contributes toward the maintenance or adaptation of the entire sociocultural system are functions.
Fusiform
Spindle-shaped is called fusiform.
Girdle
Belt or zone is called a girdle.
Gland
Gland refers to any organ specialized to produce a secretion.
Glottis
Slit-like opening between the true vocal folds or vocal cords are called glottis.
Gluteal
Pertaining to the buttocks is a gluteal.
Grimace
Grimace refers to a distorted facial expression, often a symptom of schizophrenia.
Groin
Region of the body between the abdomen and thighs is referred to as the groin.
Group
Two or more persons who interact with one another, share common goals, are somehow interdependent, and recognize that they belong to a group is a group.
Helping
In sociobiology, any behavior that increases the survival chance or reproductive capacity of another individual is helping.
Hematoma
A mass of coagulated blood within tissues or a body cavity is called a hematoma.
Hernia
Hernia refers to abnormal protrusion of an organ or a body part through the containing wall of its cavity.
Hinge joint
Two bones joined where the convex end of one bone fits into the complementary concave end of another is called a hinge joint.
Horn
Subdivision of gray matter in the spinal cord is referred to as a horn. The axons of sensory neurons synapse with neurons in the posterior horn, the cell bodies of motor neurons are in the anterior horn, and the cell bodies of autonomic neurons are in the lateral horn.
Human
Human refers to any species of primate classified in the family Hominidae, characterized by bipedal locomotion, relatively large brains, and usually articulate speech
Hyoid
U-shaped bone between the mandible and larynx is a hyoid.
Hyperextension
Extreme extension is referred to as hyperextension.
Hypothenar
Fleshy mass of tissue on the medial side of the palm is referred to as hypothenar.
Ice
Ice refers to street name for dextromethamphetamine, a crystalline form of amphetamine that is smokable. It has slightly milder physical effects than methamphetamine hydrochloride but more severe mental effects.
Ilium
One of the bones of a coxal bone or hipbone is called ilium.
Image
Image refers to most often, a mental representation that has picture-like qualities
Index
Index refers to a type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more general dimension. Contrasted with scale.
Infer
Infer refers to go from the particular to the general
Inferior vena cava
Vein that returns blood from the lower limbs and the greater part of the pelvic and abdominal organs to the right atrium is referred to as inferior vena cava.
Inferior
Situated below something else is referred to as inferior.
Inflammation
A tissue response to stress that is characterized by dilation of blood vessels and an accumulation of fluid in the affected region is called inflammation.
Inguinal
Pertaining to the groin region is inguinal.
Injection
A method of rapid drug delivery that puts the substance directly in the bloodstream, in a muscle, or under the skin is called injection.
Innervation
The nerve supply to an organ is referred to as innervation.
Insertion
The end of a muscle attached to a movable part is referred to as insertion.
Inspiration
Breathing in is called inspiration.
Intercostal
Between the ribs, as in the intercostal muscles, arteries, veins, and nerves is intercostal.
Interosseous membrane
A fibrous membrane that connects the radius to the ulna and the tibia to the fibula along most of the shaft of each bone is referred to as the interosseous membrane.
Interpretation
Interpretation refers to an explanation of a client's utterance according to psychoanalytic theory.
Intramuscular injection
Intramuscular injection refers to injecting a drug into a muscle. It takes three to five minutes for the drug to reach the brain and have an effect.
Intrinsic muscles
Muscles located within the structure being moved are intrinsic muscles.
Inversion
Inversion refers to movement in which the sole of the foot is turned inward.
Ischium
Superior bone of the coxa is called ischium.
Isolation
Isolation refers to the degree to which groups do not live in the same communities.
Labia
The major and minor lips of the female genitalia is a labia.
Language
Language refers to a system of symbols used to communicate with others. In humans language is characterized by infinite generativity and rule systems.
Larynx
Structure located between the pharynx and trachea that houses the vocal cords is referred to as the larynx.
Lateral
Pertaining to the side is called lateral.
Learning
Learning refers to according to behaviorists, a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience. According to cognitive theorists, the process by which organisms make relatively permanent changes in the way they represent the environment.
Lever
A simple mechanical device consisting of a rod, fulcrum, weight, and a source of energy that is applied to some point on the rod is called a lever.
Ligament
A cord or sheet of connective tissue binding two or more bones at a joint is a ligament.
Linea alba
Linea alba refers to a narrow band of tendinous connective tissue in the midline of the anterior abdominal wall.
Load
Load refers to pick up a gas for transport in the bloodstream. The resistance acted upon by a muscle.
Longitudinal
Oriented along the longest dimension of the body or an organ is called longitudinal.
Lower limb
Inferior appendage consisting of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot is called lower limb.
Lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae refer to the five vertebrae of the lumbar region of the vertebral column, commonly called the small of the back.
Lumbar
Pertaining to the region of the loins, part of back between the thorax and pelvis is referred to as the lumbar.
Mandible
Mandible refers to lower jawbone
Manubrium
Part of a bone representing the handle, such as the manubrium of the sternum representing the handle of a sword is referred to as a manubrium.
Mass
A collection of people who pay attention to and react to the same thing without being in one another's presence is a mass.
Mastication
Chewing movements is called mastication.
Mastoid
Resembling a breast is a mastoid.
Mechanical advantage
Mechanical advantage refers to a condition that occurs when the load is close to the fulcrum and the effort is applied far from the fulcrum
Mechanical disadvantage
Mechanical disadvantage refers to condition that occurs when the load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
Medial
Toward or near the midline is called medial.
Median plane
Specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline is referred to as the median plane.
Meniscus
Meniscus refers to fibrocartilage that separates the articulating surfaces of bones in the knee.
Metacarpal
Metacarpal refers to relating to the fine bones of the hand between the carpus and the phalanges.
Metacarpals
Bones of the hand between the wrist and finger bones are metacarpals.
Metatarsal
Bone of the foot between the ankle and toe bones is called metatarsal.
Mind
The entire set of an individual's sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, amid other subjective experiences is called mind.
Molar
A rear tooth with a flattened surface adapted for grinding food is referred to as a molar.
Muscle tissue
Muscle tissue is a type of tissue adapted to contract.
Muscular system
An organ system composed of the skeletal muscles, specialized mainly for maintaining postural support and producing movements of the bones is a muscular system.
Nasal cavity
Nasal cavity refers to space within the nose.
Neck
Neck refers to a slightly constricted part of a tooth, between the crown and the root.
Nerve
A bundle of nerve fibers in the PNS is referred to as a nerve.
Nerves
Bundles of neuron fibers that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system are referred to as nerves.
Nervous system
An organ system composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia, specialized for rapid communication of information is a nervous system.
Nonverbal communication
Communication between individuals that does not involve the content of spoken language, but relies instead on an unspoken language of facial expressions, eye contact, and body language is nonverbal communication.
Nose
Visible structure that forms a prominent feature of the face is the nose.
Nuchal
The back of the neck is a nuchal.
Nurse
Nurse refers to health practitioner who provides many services for patients and who may work in a variety of settings.
Occipital
Occipital refers to pertaining to the lower, back portion of the head.
Old
Old characterizes a person 65 to 84 years of age.
Olecranon
Olecranon refers to process on the distal end of the ulna, forming the point of the elbow.
Operation
Piaget's term for a reversible action that can be performed either in reality or mentally upon some object or set of objects is operation.
Opposition
A movement of the thumb in which it touches any fingertip of the same hand is an opposition.
Oral cavity
The mouth is called an oral cavity.
Orbit
The eye socket of the skull is called an orbit.
Organ
Organ refers to a structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function.
Organization
The structure discovered or imposed upon a set of items that is used to guide memory performance is an organization.
Origin
Origin refers to end of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immovable part.
Pain
The sensation that warns us that damage to our bodies is occurring is referred to as pain.
Palate
The roof of the mouth is called the palate.
Palatine
Pertaining to the palate is called palatine.
Palmar
Palmar refers to pertaining to the palm of the hand.
Paralysis
Loss of ability to control voluntary muscular movements, usually due to a disorder of the nervous system is paralysis.
Parietal
Parietal refers to pertaining to the wall of an organ or cavity.
Patella
Kneecap is called a patella.
Patellar
Patellar refers to pertaining to the kneecap.
Pattern
Pattern refers to refers to a regular and systematic repetition of the same behavior not occurring by chance.
Pectoral girdle
Portion of the skeleton that provides support and attachment for the arm is the pectoral girdle.
Pectoral
Pertaining to the chest is referred to as pectoral.
Pelvic girdle
Portion of the skeleton to which the legs are attached is the pelvic girdle.
Pelvic
Pelvic refers to pertaining to the pelvis.
Pelvis
Bony ring formed by the sacrum and coxal bones is called a pelvis.
Penis
Penis refers to an external reproductive organ of the male through which the urethra passes.
Pennate
Muscles with fasciculi arranged like the barbs of a feather along a common tendon are called pennate.
Pericardial
Pertaining to the pericardium is called pericardial.
Pericardium
Serous membrane that surrounds the heart is a pericardium.
Perineal
Perineal refers to pertaining to the perineum.
Perineum
Body region between the scrotum or urethral opening and the anus is a perineum.
Peristalsis
Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs are called peristalsis.
Peritoneum
A serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and encloses the abdominal viscera is called peritoneum.
Peroneal
Associated with the fibula is referred to as peroneal.
Phalanx
A bone of a finger or to is a phalanx.
Pharynx
Portion of the digestive tube between the mouth and the esophagus is a pharynx.
Plane
A flat surface is a plane. An imaginary surface formed by extension through any axis or two points.
Plantar flexion
Bending the foot downward is called plantar flexion.
Play
Any activity done for sheer enjoyment is called play.
Plexus
A network of interlaced nerves or blood vessels is referred to as plexus.
Popliteal
Pertaining to the region behind the knee is referred to as popliteal.
Posterior
Toward the back is called posterior.
Power stroke
Movement of the thick filament alongside the thin filament in a muscle cell, causing muscle contraction is referred to as power stroke.
Power
Power refers to the inverse of the probability of making a Type II error
Pregnancy
The condition in which a female has a developing offspring in her uterus is called pregnancy.
Pressure
Pressure refers to expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way.
Prime mover
Muscle that is mainly responsible for a particular body movement is a prime mover.
Priority
Alternatives ranked according to feasibility or value or both are referred to as priority.
Process
Process refers to projection on a bone.

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