Glossary of Chapter 10, psyc

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Sound Localization
1. Interaural Time Difference (ITD)
2. Interaural Level Difference (ILD
Interaural Time Difference
The difference in time between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other
-largest: 640 microseconds
-Medial superior olives: first place auditory signals form both ears converge, location of ITD dectectors
-dependent on size of head
Location of an imaginary circle that extends around us in a horizontal plane
Interaural Level Difference
The difference in level (intensity) between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other.
-shape of head effects this
-greatest for high frequency tones (head blocks short-wave lengths)
-laternal superior olives
Cones of confusion
regions that produce the same ITD and ILD
-Azimuth doesn't consider sounds from above and below
Pinna and Head cues
intensity and frequency funnelled at different efficiencies depending on direction of sound
Head-related transfer function (HRTF)
A function that describes how the pinna, ear canal, head and torso, change the intensity of sounds with different frequencies that arrive at each ear from different locations in space
Auditory distance perception
1. relative intensity
2. spectral composition
3. relative amounts of direct versus reverberant energy
Relative intensity
Becomes less intense with greater distance
-inverse-square law: as distance from a source increases, intensity decreases faster such that decrease in intensity is the distance squared.
Spectral composition
the farther away, the "muddier" the sound
-the distance must be at least 1000 meters
direct vs. reverberant energy
direct: arrives directly from teh source
reververant: bounced off surfaces in the environment
Missing fundamental
The auditory system is actuetly sensitive to natural relationship between harmonics- still hear missing fundamental
The pschological sensation by which a listener can judge that two sounds that have the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar.
-Timbre quality is conveyed by harmonics and other high frequencies.
the part of a sound during which amplitude increases
The part of a sound during which amplitude decreases
Auditory stream segregation
division of auditory world into separate auditory objects
Auditory stream
sounds perceived to cmonate from teh same source
Grouping sounds:
1. Auditory stream: similarity
2. Timbre
3. onset: common fate
4. Continuity (continues behind masking sound)- good continuation
5. Restoration- percieve missing sound as present(closure)

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