Glossary of Chapter 0 and Chapter 1 - Atomic Structure
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- 1L equals how many cm^3?
- 1000 cm^3
- Density is measured in what?
- g / cm^3 or mass / volume
- Formula for volume?
- mass / density
- Molecular formula
- gives identities and numbers of atoms in a molecule
- Avagadro’s number
- 6.02 x 10^23, 1mole = 6.02 x 10^23 atoms
- # of moles ?
- mass in grams / mw
- empirical formula?
- smallest whole #’s that give the same ratio of atoms in a molecule (to reduce molec. Formula divide all subscripts by greatest common factor)
- Percentage composition by mass?
- take the empirical formula molecular weight and compare individual molecule to mw.
- How do you find the empirical formula from % composition?
- -start with 100g of substance
-find the # of moles (g of substance over molec. Weight)
-find the ratio of the number of atoms
- How do you find the limiting reagent?
- convert grams to moles and look at stochiometric coefficients
- What is the oxidation state of an atom?
- the charge it would have if the compound were ionic
- What are the rules for assigning oxidation states?
- *The highest rule takes precedence
1 group 1 metals have oxidation states of +1 and group 2 of +2
2)Flourine has a -1 oxidation state
3)Hydrogen has a +1 oxidation state
4)Oxygen has a -2 oxidation state
5)Halogens have a -1 oxidation state
6)Group 16 atoms (oxygen family) have -2 oxidation state
- What is the atomic # ?
- Z; the number of protons,
- What is a nucleon?
- central nucleus which contains protons and neutrons known collectively as nucleons
- What is the atomic mass or mass #?
- Atomic mass = protons + neutrons
A = Z + N
- What is an isotope?
- same atomic # but differ in mass number do to the difference in neutrons
- What is an ion?
- a neutral atom that gains or looses electrons and becomes charged.
- What is the shell number, n ?
- -size and energy of the orbital
-the greater the n value the greater the electron's energy and avg. distance from the nucleus
-can be any whole # starting with 1
- What is the subshell number,l ?
- the shape of the orbital:
l = 0 -> s subshell (groups 1,2)
l= 1 -> p subshell (B - He)
l= 2 -> d subshell (Sc - Zn)
l=3 -> f subshell (bottom 2 periods)
- l can be 0,1,2 .. n-1
- What is the orbital # m sub l ?
- describes 3-D orientation of orbital
-ex. if l = 2 m sub l can be -2, -1, 0, 1, 2
- What is the spin #, m sub s ?
- -spin of electon in orbital
-can either be +1/2 or -1/2(spin down)
- Electron configuration rule #1?
- electrons occupy the lowest orbitals available
-electron subshells are filled in order of increasing energy
- Electron configuration rule 2?
- Hunds rule: electrons in same subshell occupy available orbitals singly before pairing up
- Electron configuration rule #3?
- no 2 electrons in same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum #'s
- How do you write an element in the d block?
- when in the d block subtract 1 from the period number
ex. Sc; is in period 4 so you subtract 1 from the period # and say that it puts its valence electrons in the 3d subshell : [Ar] 4s2 3d1
- Exceptions to the rule
- Cr-> [Ar]4s1 3d5--bc atom obtains more stable, lower energy state by promoting 1 of its e's to 3d to give half filled subshell
-same concept for Mo
-Cu, Ag, and Au donate electron from s subshell to give complete d subshell
- What electrons are removed (ionized) in transition metals?
- the valence s electrons are always lost first; only after these are all gone do any d electrons get ionized
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