Glossary of Ch 3 matching

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Define Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm, providing cellular shape and organization
Define Centrosome
An orgnizing center for growth of the mitotic spindle
Define Ribosomes
Sites of protein synthesis
Define Rough ER
Site where secretory proteins and membrane molecules are synthesized
Define Smooth ER
Functions in synthesizing fatty acids and steriods, helping liver cells release glucose into the bloodstream, and detoxification
DEfine Golgi complex
Modifies, sorts, packages, and transports molecules synthesized in the rough ER
Define Lysosomes
Membrane-enclosed vesicles formed in the Golgi complex that contain strongly hydrolytic enzymes
Define Peroxisomes
Membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain enzymes that oxidize various organic substances
Define Mitochondria
Function in ARP generation
DEfine Cilia
Microtubular structures extending from the plasma membrance and involved in movement of materials along the cell's surface
DEfine proteasomes
Contain enzymes that break apart unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins into small peptides
DEfine diffusion
The random mixing of particles in a solution due to the kinetic energy of the particles
DEfine Osmosis
Movement of water from an area of higher to an area of lower water concentration through a selectively permeable membrane
Define Facilitated Diffusion
Passive transport in which a solute binds to a specific transporter on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side
Define Primary active transport
Uses energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP to change the shape of a transporter protein, which "pumps" a sutatance across a cellular membrane against its contration gradient
Define Secondary active transport
Indirectly uses energy obtained from the breakdown of ATP; involves symporters and antiporters
Define Vesicular transport
Transport of substances either into or out of the cell by means of a small, spherical membranous sac formed by budding off from existing membranes
Define Phagocytosis
Type of endocytosis in which large solid particles are taken in
DEfine Pinocytosis
Type of endocytosis that involves the nonselective uptake of tiny droplets of extracellular fluid
Define Exocytosis
Movement of materials out of the cell by fusing of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane
DEfine Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Process that allows a cell to take specific ligands from the ECF by forming vesicles
DEfine Trancytosis
Vesicular movement involving endocytosis on one side of a cell and subsequent exocytosis on the opposite sidd of the cell

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