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Glossary of Ch 23 Chemical Communication

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3 molecules for communication
Receptors
Ligands
Secondary Messengers
Receptors
on surface of cells and partically embedded in membrane
Ligands
binds to receptors
ex. hormones directly enter cell after it is received.
Secondary Messengers
Signal inside cell and amplify message
4 types of drugs
antagonist
agonist
drugs that decrease [messengers]
drugs that inc [messengers]
antagonist drug
blocks receptors
agonist drug
competes with messengers for receptor cite
vessicles
presynaptic bulbs that store and release neurotransmitters
ednocrine glands
secrete hormones
main diff b/t neurotransmitters and hormones
the distance they travel
can be neurotransmitters or hormones
ligands
5 classes of chemical messengers
cholinergic
amino acid
adrenic messengers
peptergic
steroid
cholinergic ligands
1. Ca2+ stimulates release of acetylchoine
2. acetylcholine travels synapse and bonds to receptor
3. binding to receptor causes conformation change and Na+ enters --> electricity!
two types of amino acid ligands
excitory neurotransmitters
inhibitory neurotransmitters
adrenic messengers
absorbed by cell, signal amplified through cascade effect
examples of adrenic messengers
dopamine
histamine
Peptergic messengers
peptides that are messengers
involved in metabolism
example of peptergic messenger
insulin
insulin
allows glucose to enter cell by activating cyclic GMP to allow glucose to enter
steroid messngers
can enter cell through diffusion; no receptors
Breast cancer
too much estradiol

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