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Glossary of Ch1 - Basic Elements of a Medical Word

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What is a word root?
The core/foundation of a medical term, it contains the fundamental meaning of the word.
Greek word roots are used to build words that describe what?
Diseases, conditions, treatments or diagnosis's.
Latin word roots are used to build words that describe what?
Anatomic structures.
DERM
SKIN
NEPHR
KIDNEY
STOMAT
MOUTH
CUTANE
SKIN
OR
MOUTH
REN
KIDNEY
WHAT IS A COMBINING FORM?
A WORD ROOT TO WHICH A VOWEL (USUALLY AN O) IS ADDED. ENABLES TWO ELEMENTS TO BE CONNECTED.
ERYTHR/O
RED
GASTR/O
STOMACH
HEPAT/O
LIVER
IMMUN/O
IMMUNE, IMMUNITY, SAFE
NEPHR/O
KIDNEY
OSTE/O
BONE
A SUFFIX USUALLY INDICATES WHAT?
PROCEDURE, CONDITION, DISEASE OR PART OF SPEECH
A PREFIX USUALLY INDICATES WHAT?
A NUMBER, TIME, POSITION, DIRECTION OR NEGATION
-ITIS
INFLAMMATION
-MEGALY
ENLARGEMENT
-OMA
TUMOR
-IA
CONDITION
-AR
RELATING TO
A-
WITHOUT
HYPER-
EXCESSIVE, ABOVE NORMAL
INTRA-
IN, WITHIN
MACRO-
LARGE
MICRO-
SMALL
WHAT ARE THE 3 BASIC RULES FOR DEFINING A MEDICAL WORD?
1. DEFINE THE SUFFIX
2. DEFINE THE FIRST PART OF THE WORD
3. DEFINE THE MIDDLE PARTS OF THE WORD
A WORD ROOT LINKS A SUFFIX THAT BEGINS WITH A CONSONANT OR VOWEL?
VOWEL
A COMBINING FORM (ROOT+O) LINKS A SUFFIX THAT BEGINS WITH A VOWEL OR CONSONANT?
CONSONANT
USE A ______ TO LINK A ROOT TO ANOTHER ROOT TO FORM A COMPOUND WORD.
COMBINING FORM
4 ELEMENTS USED TO FORM WORDS
WORD ROOTS, COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES
FOR AE AND OE, ONLY THE ___ VOWEL IS PRONOUNCED
SECOND

EX: BURSAE, PLEURAE
THE ____ SOUND OF S AND J ARE GIVEN TO C AND G BEFORE E,I,Y IN WORDS.
SOFT

EX: CEREBRUM, GINGIVITIS
C AND G HAVE A ___ SOUND BEFORE ALL LETTERS EXCEPT FOR I,E,Y IN WORDS.
HARD

EX: CARDIAC, GONAD
THE LETTERS CH ARE SOMETIMES PRONOUNCED AS A ___
K

EX: CHOLESTEROL
WHEN PN APPEARS AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORD, ONLY THE ___ IN PRONOUNCED.
N

EX: PNEUMONIA
WHEN PN APPEARS IN THE MIDDLE OF A WORD, WHICH LETTER(S) IS PRONOUNCED?
BOTH

EX: HYPERPNEA
WHEN PS APPEARS AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORD, WHICH LETTER(S) IS PRONOUNCED?
S

EX: PSYCHOLOGY
WHEN FORMING THE FINAL LETTER(S) OF A WORD, E AND ES ARE OFTEN PRONOUNCED AS SEPARATE _______
SYLLABLES

EX: SYSTOLE, NARES
WHEN THE LETTER I APPEARS AT THE END OF A WORD (TO FORM A PLURAL) IT IS PRONOUNCED ____
EYE

EX: BRONCHI, FUNGI

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