Glossary of Ch11 vocab (genetics)

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What is a nitrogen base?
nitrogen base is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen
What is a double helix?
when something is twisted like a coiled spring the shape is called a helix but because DNA is composed of two stands twisted together its shape is called a double helix
What is a DNA replication?
the DNA in the chromosomes is copied in a process called DNA replication and with out the DNA replication new cells would have only half the DNA of their parents
what is a messenger RNA?
messenger RNA brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cell's ribosomes
what is a ribosomal RNA?
the ribosomal RNA clamp onto the messenger RNA and use its information to assemble the amino acids in the correct order
what is a transfer RNA?
the transfer RNA transports amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into a protein
what is a transcription?
in the nucleus enzymes make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand in a process called transcription
what is a codon?
each set of three nitorgen bases in messenger RNA coding for an amino acid is known as a codon
what is translation?
the process of converting the information in a sequence of amino acids that make up a protein in known as translation
what is mutation?
any change in the DNA sequence that also changes the protein it codes for is called mutation
what is point mutation?
when an incorrect amino acid is inserted into a growing protein chain during the process of translation the mistake affects the structure of the entire molecule this problem occurs if a point of mutation arises creates a point mutation
what is frameshift mutation?
a mutation in which a single base is added or deleted from the DNA is called a frameshift mutation
what is chromosomal mutation?
often chromosomes break and then rejoin incorrectly sometimes the parts join backwards or even join to the wrong chromosome these changes in chromosomes are called chromosomal mutation
what is a mutagen?
anything that can cause a change in the DNA is called a mutagen

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