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Glossary of Ch. 31 Antitubercular drugs, antifungals, AIDS

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Macrolides
ERYTHROMYCIN
Most G+ and some G-
Respiratory and GI, sinus, skin inf.
Erythromycin adv. effects
n/v/d
liver toxicity if taken with other hepatotoxic drugs (tylenol)
Why are AIDS patients at high risk for developing TB?
Their compromised immune systems.
What are the main risks for developing drug-resistant TB?
Giving isoniazid only, in TB tx, multi drug tx needs to by used.
What are the nursing considerations regarding AIDS and TB?
Prophylactic therapy recommended. (HIV+ with pos TB tests = 2 month rifampin and pyrazinamide)
Who should be given INH?
Persons who have been in close contact with those with TB, HIV+ pts with a +TB test.
What adverse effects does INH have?
Can cause liver damage
Why is active, symptomatic TB always treated with multiple drugs?
Resistance did not occur and treatment time was reduced from 2 yrs to 6-9 months
What are the adverse effects of INH; rifampin
INH: peripheral neuropathy, hepatotoxicity. Rifampin: increased liver enzyme levels.
What are the adverse effects of pyrazinamide; ethambutol?
renal insufficancy
What are the clinical indications for the use of acyclovir and zidovudine?
clients of symptoms of clinical AIDS (opportunistic infection) or immunologic AIDS (CD4+ count <200), also asymptomatic clients with a count less than 350 but viral load over 55K
How do AZT, didanoside, dideoxycytidine act against HIV?
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, suppress viral erplication to slow decline in the number of CD4+ cells, reduce incidence and severity of opportunistic infections
Major adverse effects of AIDS drugs?
lactic acidosis, hepatomegaly, hyperglycemia, increased bleeding.
What is a retroviral drug?
one that suppresses a retrovirus such as HIV
What is a protease inhibitor?
antiretroviral (Kaletra) block protease -keeps virus from replicating

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