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Glossary of Ch. 2 Chemistry

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Scientific method
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
System
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
Hypothesis
testable statement (basis for making predictions)
model
an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related
theory
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
quantity
something that has magnitude, size, or amount
SI
Le Systeme International d' Unites-the measurement system accepted worldwide
weight
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
derived units
a unit that is a combination of SI base units
volume
the amount of space occupied by an object
density
the ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume
accuracy
refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quanity measured
precision
refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way (not close to accepted value)
percent error
a value calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the accepted value, divinding the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100
significant figures
a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated
conversion factor
a ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
scientific notation
numbers are written in the form M x 10n where the factor M is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number (exponent)
directly proportional
two quantities that give a constant value when one is divided by the other
inversely proportional
two quantities that have a constant mathematical product

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