Glossary of Ch. 23 History
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- Fidel Castro
- Cuban leader who allied himself with the Soviet Union
- Missile gap
- The United States lagged behind the Soviets in weaponry.
- 1. Which of the following characterized Congress during the Kennedy years?
a. The Republicans were in the majority in both houses of Congress.
b. The Democrats in Congress were indebted to Kennedy for helping them get ele
- c. Many members of Congress viewed Kennedy’s New Frontier as too big and costly.
- 2. To stimulate the lagging economy, Kennedy used all of the following EXCEPT __________.
a. supply-side economics
b. deficit spending
c. strategies to increase business production and efficiency
d. tax hike
- d. tax hikes
- 3. The Warren Court reforms changed society in all of the following ways EXCEPT by __________.
a. boosting the political power of African Americans and Hispanics by forcing reapportionment of electoral districts
- d. expanding the power of law enforcement agencies
- 5. President Kennedy planned for a flexible response to war by __________.
a. building up conventional troops and weapons
b. stockpiling nuclear weapons
c. being prepared to employ Eisenhower’s style of brinkmans
- a. building up conventional troops and weapons
- 6. What motivated President Kennedy to send aid to Latin America?
a. He hoped to develop an enduring humanitarian legacy.
b. He hoped that a prosperous Latin America would be less likely to support Communist-inspired revo
- b. He hoped that a prosperous Latin America would be less likely to support Communist-inspired revolutions.
- 7. Which had the GREATEST influence on President Kennedy’s decision to fund the space program?
a. his interest in developing military computers
b. his interest in the last frontier
c. his interest in winning the
- c. his interest in winning the Cold War
- Engel vs. Vitale
- State-mandated prayer in school banned
- 8. President Johnson drew inspiration for his Great Society from all the following EXCEPT __________.
a. his personal experience with poverty
b. the goals of the civil rights movement
c. Franklin Roosevelt’s New
- d. Harry Truman’s Fair Deal
- Miranda vs. Arizona
- Police must inform suspects of their rights during the arrest process
- New York Times vs. Sullivan
- Celebrities may sue the media for libel only in certain circumstances
- Brown vs. Board of Education
- Segregation in public schools unconstitutional
- Baker vs. Carr
- Established that federal courts can hear lawsuits seeking to force state authorities to redraw electoral districts
- Reynolds vs. Sims
- State legislative districts should be equal in population
- Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. United States
- Desegregation of public accommodations established in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is legal
- Loving vs. Virginia
- States may not ban interracial marriage
- Mapp vs. Ohio
- Unlawfully seized evidence is inadmissible at trial
- Gideon vs. Wainwright
- Suspects are entitled to court-appointed attorney if unable to afford one on their own
- Escobedo vs. Illinois
- Accused has the right to an attorney during police questioning
- 9. Which of the following Great Society initiatives funded a preschool program for the disadvantaged?
b. Project Head Start
c. Child Nutrition Act
d. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act
- b. Project Head Start
- 10. Which of the following is a TRUE statement about President Johnson’s Great Society?
a. The Great Society’s programs were widely successful, and many continue today.
b. Management problems and inadequate funding ha
- b. Management problems and inadequate funding hampered the success of the Great Society.
- What was scrutinized most about Kennedy?
- He was a catholic
- The New Frontier
- Kennedy's legislative agenda to increase aid to education, provide health insurance, create a Department of Urban Affairs, and help migrant workers.
- Earl Warren
- Chief Justice of the Supreme Court under Kennedy's presidency
- Richard Nixon
- Ran against Kennedy in the election of 1960.
- Esther Peterson
- appointed by Kennedy to the position of assistant secretary of labor and director of the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor
- Due Process
- Laws may not treat individuals unfairly, arbitrarily, or unreasonable, and courts must follow proper procedures when trying cases
- the way in which states draw up political districts based on changes in population
- Flexible response
- The response the United States would take if the Soviets invaded a country and that country needed help against them.
- Peace Corps
- Organization that sent young Americans to perform humanitarian services in other povertous countries
- Space Race
- The contest between America and the USSR to gain control of outer space
- Berlin Wall
- Divided the city of Berlin into halves; the Communist east side and the Capitalist west side
- Warren Commission
- Investigated possible theories of a conspiracy of Kennedy's assassination
- Lee Harvey Oswald
- Accused of killing Kennedy
- Jack Ruby
- Shot Lee Harvey Oswald
- War on Poverty
- the antipoverty program under Lyndon Johnson
- The Great Society
- Lyndon Johnson's vision of a better society the United States should become
- a general agreement
- Volunteers in Service to America, domestic Peace Corps
- Health benefits program for elderly and disabled people
- Health benefits program for low income families
- Head Start
- Program directed at disadvantaged children
- Robert Weaver
- First African American to serve in a cabinet, first secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1965 under Lyndon Johnson
- Upward Bound
- Provided college preparation for low income families
- Barry Goldwater
- Johnson's Republican opponent in the 1964 election, from Arizona
- Hubert Humphrey
- Johnson's vice president
- Which of Kennedy's policies were defeated by Congress?
- Health insurance for the elderly, Department of Urban Affairs, Federal aid to Education
- In which area were most of Kennedy's victories in Congress?
- Improving the nation's economy
- Where did Kennedy invest more funds?
- Defense and Space Exploration
- What was Congress' concern about Kennedy lowering taxes
- It would cause inflation
- Two programs supported by Congress which provided funds to poor areas and their outcome
- Area Redevelopment Act and Housing Act. These cleared slums, created jobs, built low-income housing
- Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
- Called for federal action against gender discriminatio and affirmed the right of women to equally paid empolyment.
- How did Kennedy help women make strides
- He appointed women to prominent positions in his administration and advanced women's rights in jobs and pay
- Equal Pay Act
- Women had to be paid equal to men
- What was Kennedy's executive order about women?
- Ended gender discrimination in the federal civil service
- One man, one vote
- The principle which required state legislatures to reapportion electoral districts so that all citizens' votes would have equal weight.
- How did one man, one vote change political power in America?
- Shifted power from rural (conservative) areas to urban (liberal) areas, and boosted African American and Hispanic power, who lived in the cities
- Special Forces
- a small army unit created in the 1950s to wage guerrilla warefare in limited conflicts.
- Why did the United States get involved in Latin American countries?
- To help existing governments stay in power in order to prevent Communist movements from flourishing
- Alliance for Progress
- Cooperative aid projects with Latin American governments, designed to make Latin America free and prosperous and less likely to become communist
- Fulgencio Batista
- Castro overthrew him in 1959
- Nikita Khrushchev
- Soviet Premier
- What did Eisenhower do in response to Cuba establishing ties with the Soviet Union?
- He authorized the CIA to secretly train Cuban exiles to invade the island to cause an uprising among Cubans
- La Brigada
- what the Cuban exiles who were trained to invade at the Bay of Pigs were called
- What went wrong with the Bay of Pigs invasion
- The boats ran aground on coral, the air support was cancelled in order to not expose US involvement, and most of the exiles were captured
- Why did Krushchev decide to build the Berlin Wall?
- The United States, Great Britain, and France would not withdraw from Berlin or recognize East Germany
- Why did the Soviets take their missiles away from Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
- The United States removed their missiles from Turkey near the Soviet border and promised not to invade Cuba
- What were the positive effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
- The US and Soviets were ready to work to lessen world tensions, and even took a step towards arms reductions
- What were the negative effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
- The Soviets' military inferiority was exposed, and Khrushchev fell from power. The Soviets began dramatic arms buildups, which led to the US doing the same thing in the 1980s
- Green Berets
- symbol of army
- Michael Harrington
- wrote The Other America
- What were some achievements of Lyndon Johnson
- 26 years as a congressman, congressional staffer, Senate majority leader, vice president
- Johnson treatment
- The tactics Johnson used to persuade others
- Which laws were passed immediately after Johnson took office?
- Tax cut, Major civil rights bill, anti-poverty program
- Why was Johnson so concerned about the poor?
- He had hard times during his childhood, and he taught in a low income area
- Child Nutrition Act
- Established a school breakfast program and exapanded the school lunch program and milk program to improve poor children's nutrition
- Elementary and Secondary Education Act
- targeted aid to students and funded related activities such as adult education and education counseling
- Higher Education Act
- supported college tuition scholarships, student loans, work-study programs for low income families
- Project Head Start
- funded a preschool program for the disadvantaged
- Office of Economic Opportunity
- programs to improve life in inner cities
- Housing and Urban Development Act
- established new housing subsidy programs and made federal loans and public housing grants easier to obtain
- Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Act
- helped revitalize urban areas through a variety of social and economic programs
- Water Quality Act and Clean Air Acts
- supported development of standards and goals for the water and air quality
- Highway Safety Act
- improved federal, state, local coordination and created training standards for emergency medical technicians
- Fair Packaging and Labeling Act
- required all comsumer products to have true and informative labels
- Neighborhood Youth Corps
- provided work-study programs to help underprivileged young men and women earn a higher diploma or degree
- Job Corps
- helped young unemployed people find jobs
- Civil Rights Act of 1964
- barred discrimination of many kinds
- Voting Rights Act of 1965
- ensured African Americans' right to vote
- Model Cities
- authorized federal subsidies to many cities nationwide which supported many programs in the city
- Immigration Reform Act of 1965
- Maintained a strict limit on the number of immigrants admitted to the United States each year
- What was a negative result of the Great Society programs
- Cities, states, and groups eligible for aid began to expect tremendous immediate benefits
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