Glossary of Ch. 1: Study of Human Development

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What is human development?
the scientific study of processes of change and stability
How did the study of human development begin?
studies of childhood during the nineteenth century

baby biographies--journals to record the early development of a child(Darwin)
When was adolescence considered a separate phase of development?
20th century
How did life span development come to be studied?
Scientific interest in the aging process in the 20th century.
What are the 4 goals of the scientific study of human development?
and modify behavior
3 major domains of development?
physical, cognitive, psychosocial
What are the arbitrary 8 periods of the life span and approximate ages?
prenatal period(conception to birth)
infancy and toddlerhood(birth to age 3)
early childhood(3 to 6 years)
middle childhood(6 to 11 years)
adolescence(11 to 20 years)
young adulthood(20 to 40 years)
middle adulthood(40 to 65 years)
late adulthood(65 plus)
Influences on development come from both...?
What are the most powerful neighborhood influences on SES?
Neighborhood income
human capital
What are the 6 principles of Baltes' life span approach?
(1) development is lifelong,
(2) development involves both gain and loss
(3) the relative influences of biology and culture shift over the life span (4) development involves a changing allocation of resources
(5) development is modifiable
(6) development is influenced by the historical and cultural context.
Define critical period.
specific time when a given event, or its absence, has a specific impact on development.
Define sensitive period.
Times in development when a person is particularly responsive to certain kinds of experiences.
Define normative event. What are two kinds?
Characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group.

Define quantitative change. Give an example.
Change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, or size of vocabulary.
Define qualitative change and give an example.
Change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication.
Under the care of Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard, Victor (the Wild Boy of Aveyron. developed
A) the ability to discriminate sensory experiences.
B) age-appropriate language skills
C) empathy.
D) social responsiveness.
Which of the following is not one of the four goals of human development?
A) description
B) explanation
C) prediction
D) control
Changes in Aisha's language abilities and moral reasoning would be classified under which developmental domain?
A) physical
B) cognitive
C) psychosocial
D) cultural
The concept of adolescence
A) is universal
B) has been well established in most American Indian groups.
C) is a recent one in industrial societies.
D) has dropped in and out of existence over the history of the human species.
Henry is beginning to use symbols, such as language and pretend play. As a normal child, Henry would be in which age group?
A) one to two years old
B) two to three years old
C) three to six years old
D) five to seven years old
Rozee is having problems with her memory and her search for meaning in life has become extremely important. If Rozee is typical of other adults her age, she is in which age range?
A) 20-40
B) 40-65
C) 65 and over
D) There is n
Dr. Charon is studying the effects of socioeconomic status (SES. on development. In his research in ten different neighborhoods within the United States, he is investigating the two most powerful aspects of SES of neighborhood effects on development, whi
Anne started school at age 5, began college at age 18, got married at age 23, and retired from a long career with a utility company at age 62. These events in Anne's life would be classified as which type of developmental influences?
A) normative
In his research on the effects of economic stress on development, Glen Elder found
A) families experiencing economic stress became more cohesive.
B) fathers in economically stressed families took on extra jobs to make ends meet.
C) i
The cases of Genie and the Wild Boy of Aveyron
A) demonstrate that language must be developed during the first six years of life or it will never develop properly.
B) are too complicated to permit conclusive judgments about language develop
Paul Baltes and his colleagues have identified each of the following as key principles of the lifespan developmental approach except
A) development is influenced more by biological factors than by cultural context.
B) development is lifelon
When studying human development, researchers consider both ? , or inborn characteristics, and ?, experiential influences.
Studying the increase in Baby Jesse’s vocabulary is an example of ? change, while his movement from nonverbal to verbal communication would be an example of ? change.
? is a concept about the nature of reality, based on societally shared perceptions or assumptions.
social construction
With the development of speech and the ability to move about on their own, ? become increasingly self-reliant.
Kai is developing his self concept as his independence, self control, and self care increase. These examples suggest ? development during the ?period of the life span.
early childhood
Six-year-old Abigail lives in the United States, and six-year-old Juana lives in Peru. Abigail is more likely to live in a ? family, and Juana is more likely to live in an ? family.
Today, the ? family household is becoming less typical in developing countries, and ? families are becoming more common in Western societies.
? consist of people united by ancestry, religion, language, and/or national regions, which contribute to a shared identity and shared attitudes, beliefs, and values.
Ethnic groups
Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz showed that newly hatched ducklings instinctively follow the first moving object they see, a phenomenon called
As Konrad Lorenz demonstrated, birds have a window of opportunity to learn such important things as imprinting during their ? periods of development; humans, who are more plastic in their development, experience ? periods, when they are especially respon

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