Glossary of Ch. 18 History
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- Enlightened absolutism
- Embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality.
- Madame de Pompadour
- She was blamed for establishing France's alliance with Austria, which led to the Seven Years' War.
- Landed gentry
- Members of the upper class families with country estates often farmed on their behalf by others.
- Pocket boroughs
- A borough in England whose representation was controlled by a single person or family.
- The dynasty which ruled the United Kingdom from 1714 to 1901.
- Robert Walpole
- English politician who led the Whig administration and is regarded as Britain's first prime minister.
- Duke of Newcastle
- British Royalist commander in the English Civil Wars.
- William Pitt the Elder
- Directed Britain country's military effort during the Seven Years' War
- Maria Theresa of Austria
- Queen of Hungary and Bohemia whose reign was marked by the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
- Catherine the Great
- She vastly increased the territory of the Russia through conquest and three partitions of Poland.
- Emelian Ivanovich Pugachev
- Russian peasant leader, head of the peasant rebellion of 1773–74.
- Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji
- Peace treaty signed by Catherine II.
- Pragmatic Sanction
- Designed to ensure that the Austrian throne would be inherited by Emperor Charles VI's daughter, Maria Theresa.
- Passed to the Austrian Habsburgs in 1526; it was taken by Prussia in 1742.
- Count Wenzel von Kaunitz
- He represented Austria at the 1748 Aix-la-Chapelle peace conference and was ambassador to Paris.
- Robert Clive
- His reorganizing of Bengal helped establish Britain's power in India.
- Treaty of Paris
- Together with the treaty of Hubertusburg, This treaty terminated the Seven Years War.
- The right of the eldest child, especially the eldest son, to inherit the entire estate of one or both parents.
- Open-field system
- Crop system with each field containing a different crop as part of a three field crop rotation.
- Jethro Tull
- He perfected a horse-drawn seed drill that economically sowed seeds in neat rows.
- The process of conversion of common land to private ownership.
- Agricultural revolution
- Included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and increased technical improvements.
- John Law
- He founded the Banque Générale, which was authorized to issue notes.
- "Putting-out" system
- Work was contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who completed the work in their own facility
- Richard Arkwright
- British inventor and manufacturer who patented a machine for spinning cotton thread.
- Georgian style
- Design and decorative arts of Britain during the reigns of the first four Georges.
- The "Grand Tour"
- A tour of the major European cities, considered essential to a well-bred man's education.
- Patrician oligarchies
- Government by land-owning men.
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