Glossary of Ch.2 Physiology
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- has 4 electrons in its outer shell and forms covalent bonds by sharing these electrons with other atoms
- repeated subunits
- the simple sugars, composed of a single unit.
- carbohydrates formed by the covalent bonding of two monosaccharides.
- carbohydrates formed by the covalent bonding of several monosaccharides.
helps store energy & important components of cell membrane
- important source of energy for our cells
- Ribose & Deoxyribose are monosaccharide molecules that are important components of __________.
- table sugar
compsed of glucose & fructose joined together to make ______.
- carbohydrate found in milk
compsed of glucose & galactose make ______.
- a polymer of glucose subunits and is found in animal cells
body stores this and will breakdown and use for energy.
- a polysaccharide found in plants
- polysaccharide found in plants
consumed by humans, unable to digest and absorb it.
AKA dietary fiber
- a molecule that contains both polar and nonpolar regions
- formed by linking each of three fatty acids to a different carbon in the glycerol backbone.
- Saturated fatty acid
- carbons linked only by single bonds
- Unsaturated fatty acids
- contain one or more pairs of carbons linked by double bonds and thus have fewer hydrogens per carbon.
- Monounsaturated fatty acid
- contains exactly one double-bonded pair of carbons
- Polyunsaturated fatty acid
- contains more than one double-bonded pair of carbons.
- saturated fatty acids
- _________ _____ _____ are implicated in the development of plaques that can clog arteries, which can lead to stroke or heart attack.
- Triglycerides (function)
- Long term energy storage
- lipids that contain a phosphate group.
glycerol forms the backbone
2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, and phosphate group
- The 2 ____ ____ form the ____ region of the phospholipid, which is ______ because of their long chains of carbon atoms.
- phospholipid bilayer
- the core structure of cell membranes
- a spherical structure composed of a single layer of phospholipids
it functions in the transport of nonpolar molecules in an aqueous environment. heads face outward, tails face inward forming hydrophobic interior.
- a fatty acid and ring structure
Used as cellular communication molecules (local communication)
- Basically non-polar molecules
multiple carbon based rings bonded together
all based on cholesterol molecule.
Used for cellular communication (hormones)
ex. pit. gld. tells ovaries what to do.
- All steroids are modified from ________ molecules.
Also ________ is important in the components of the plasma membrane.
- usually more than 50 A.A. to hundreds longs
- to break apart by water
- short chains of A.A., usually less than 50.
- Primary protein structure
- The sequence and # of A.A. which is determined by peptide bonds w/in a peptide chain.
- Secondary protein structure
- fold pattern due to hydrogen bonds forming btwn hydrogen atom in the amino group of one A.A. and Oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of another A.A. in the same polypeptide. Form sheets or helixes
- Tertiary protein structure
- folding due to interactions btwn. R groups of polypeptide
Interactions may be:
Van der waals forces
- Hydrogen bonds
- form btwn polar R groups
- Ionic bonds
- form btwn ionized or charged R groups
- Van der waals forces
- electrical attraction btwn the electrons of one atom and the protons of another atom.
- Covalent bonds
- form btwn the R groups of 2 cyteines (a sulhydryl group)
- Quaternary protein structure
- folding of more than one polypeptide chain to form a functional protein.
- tranports oxygen in the blood
a single protein consisting of four separate polypeptide chains
- Protein functions
- Structural molecules
Chemical messengers (hormones)
all enzymes are protein chemicals
1000 kinds of different enzymes molecules
- Fibrous proteins
- extended elongated strands that function in structure or contraction.
- protein found in tendons and bones
- protein found in muscle cells
- Globular proteins
- coiled, folded, irregular, and bulky
act as chemical messengers for intercellular communication.
- have carbohydrates attached to the polypeptide chains
important to plasma membrane that surrounds the cells, cell recognition
- have lipids attached to them
important in transport of lipids in blood
- Nucleic Acids
- 2 subclasses: DNA & RNA
Genetic codes for protein production (DNA) and decoding of DNA and conversion of info. into A.A. sequences (RNA).
- DNA molecules
- Nucleotides covalently bonded (strength)
found in the nucleus of a cell
Produces long chains of nucleotides (longest ones)
Chemistry produces a helical shape
2 helices bonded length wise
H bonds btwn nitrogeneous bases (A-T, C-G)
2 sides have complimentary bases along their entire length.
- RNA nucleotides
- composed of ribose sugar, phosphate, and 1 of 4 nitrogeneous bases (guanine, cytosine, adenine, and uracil)
- RNA molecules
- Typically a single helix
Helix may fold into complex shapes
- Genetic code
- Sequence of DNA bases occuring along the length of a DNA molecule
46 DNA's per human (23/mom 23/dad)
Up to 1000's of genes per DNA molecule
64 possible words
- ____ consists of 2 strands of nucleotides coiled together into a double helix.
- ___ words for 20 A.A., 3 words for punctuation.
- Protein synthesis
Conversion of a DNA base sequence into a new RNA molecule whose base sequence is complimentary to the DNA base sequence. (makes a copy of RNA molecule)
It is nessessary because the site of _______ _______ is in the cytoplasm. (ribosome)
- Using ribosome and transfer RNA (tRNA) to "read" mRNA base sequence and connect A.A. together to form the desired polypeptide.
- DNA Replication
- Production of new DNA molecules prior to cell division.
Make 2 complete sets (46 molecules per set) available before cell division can occur
- DNA REPLICATION STEPS
- 1. DNA helicase enzyme can break H bonds btwn. nucleotides along length of molecule
2. DNA mucleotides now exposed on each chain
3. DNA polymerase acts to bind free DNA nucleotides to the exposed DNA bases of each chain
4. Covalent bonds btwn sugars & phosphates form
5. Produces 2 DNA molecules each 1/2 old & 1/2 new
6. DNA base sequence is the same in each molecule
- Step #1
- DNA helicase enzyme can break H bonds btwn. nucleotides along length of molecule
- Step #2
- DNA mucleotides now exposed on each chain
- Step #3
- DNA polymerase acts to bind free DNA nucleotides to the exposed DNA bases of each chain
- Step #4
- Covalent bonds btwn sugars & phosphates form
- Step #5
- Produces 2 DNA molecules each 1/2 old & 1/2 new
- Step #6
- DNA base sequence is the same in each molecule
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