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Glossary of Ch.2 Cell Structure

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Plasma membrane
sep. the cel from the extracellular fluid.
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
What are the main components of a cell?
(2)
Nucleus
Chromatin
Nuclear envelope
Nuclear pores
Nucleolus
Cytoplasm
everything inside the cell, except the nucleus.
cytosol
organelles
What are the 2 components of cytoplasm?
Cytosol
gel-like fluid
Organelles
structures made up of a varity of biomolecules, carry out specific functions in the cell
Membranous organelles
separated from cytosol by one or more membranes
Nonmembranous organelles
have no such boundary with the cytosol
Nuclear envelope
separates the nucleus and the cytoplasm
fluid mosaic
structure of the plasma membrane is described as _____ ______.
phospholipids
cholesterol
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Phospholipid bilayer
forms basic structure of the membrane
membrane considered fluid because molecules are NOT chemically bonded together and THEREFORE can move laterally and even from one side of bilayer to other.
Integral membrane proteins
embedded within the lipid bilayer, and therefore they can be dissociated from the membrane only by physically disrupting the bilayer.
amphipathic molecules (hydrophilic & hydrophobic)
Transmembrane proteins
A branch of Integral membrane proteins
include channels that allow ions to permeate the membrane, and carrier proteins that transport molecules from one side of the membrane to the other
Peripheral membrane proteins
loosely bound to the membrane by associations with integral membrane proteins or phospholipids.

can be dissociated from the membrane and still leave the membrane intact.

most on cytosol side of membrane
Membrane carbohydrates
located on extracellular side of membrane
They form glycocalyx & function in cell recognition
glycocalyx
a protective layer that also functions in holding cells together
cell recognition
helps label the cell as part of the body
important in immune response and tissue growth
Chromatin
the form in which DNA, along eith its associated proteins, exists througout most of the cell cycle
loosely coiled DNA and proteins scattered throughout the nucleus
Nuclear pores
membranes that fuse intermittently leave gaps that allow selective movement of molecules btwn. the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Nucleolus
the site of synthesis of a type of RNA called rRNA.
Inclusions
Energy in the form of triglycerides or glycogen is stored in masses
in the cytosol
Secretory vescicles
membrane-bound sacs
Endoplasmic Reticulum
an elaborate network of membrane enclosing an interior compartment called the lumen.
Rough & Smooth
Rough E.R.
continuous with the outer membrane of nuclear envelope.
closest to nucleus
has ribosomes
also attached to smooth E.R.
Ribosomes
Protein synthesis
Smooth E.R.
In liver cells, contains detoxification enzymes that break down toxic substances in the blood.
Rough E.R
associated with the synthesis of proteins that will be secreted from the cell or incorporated into the plasma membranen or another organelle.
Golgi Apparatus
processes molecules that have been synthesized in the E.R.
cisternae
membrane-bound flattened sacs
Cis face
The Golgi Apparatus is closely assiciated with the E.R. on one side but are they are separate from one another
Trans face
Golgi Apparatus faces the plasma membrane
Mitochondria
"powerhouse of the cell"
most usuable energy (ATP) is produced here.
Cristae
inner membrane is foled into tubules to increase the area for the elceton transport system
Electron transport chain
a series of proteins and other molecules called a ____ ____ _____ in the inner mitochondria membrane.
Lysosomes
Breakdown of cellular and extracellular debris
has enzymes that do this
Endocytosis
Breakdown of old organelles
Peroxisomes
often produce Hydrogen Peroxide, which is toxic
contains an enzyme called catalase
it breaks down hydrogen peroxide to form H20 and O2
Vaults
Unknown
possible transport of molecules btwn. nucleus and cytoplasm
may be involved in development of resistance to chemotherapy
Centrioles
Direction of mitotic spindle development during cell division.
Cytoskeleton
Structural support of cell
cell movement and contraction
Microfilament
smallest in diameter
actin
muscle contraction
movement of cells
separation of cytoplasm during cell division
provide structural support for microvilli
Microvilli
special cell projections found in epithelial cells that are specialized for the exchange of molecules
Intermediate filaments
btwn microfilaments and microtubules.
stronger & more stable than microfilaments
keratin
myosin
Microtubules
largest in diameter
provide strength for cytoskeleton
hollow tube - tubulin
spindle fibers
cilia
flagella
spindle fibers
aid in distribution of chromosomes during cell division

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