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Glossary of Ch.10 Muscles

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Origin
end of muscle where tendon attached to bone
doesn't move very much
Insertion
attachment of the muscles other tendon to the movable bone.
Belly (gaster)
body
fleshy portion of the muscle btwn. the tendons
Level System
In producing movement, bones act as levers, and joints function as fulcrums of these levers.
Lever
A rigid structure
moves about (around) a fixed point
Fulcrum
The pivot point
Resistance (r) or weight (wt)
overcome by force or effort supplied by the muscle
Effort or force
Supplied by muscle to overcome the weight or resistance
First class lever
E-Ful-R (seesaw)
Occurrence in First Class Lever
not common in body
may or may not be advantageous
Second Class Lever
Ful-R-E
Occurrence in Second Class Lever
not common in body
always advantageous
Third Class Lever
Ful-E-R
Occurrence in Third Class Lever
not common in body
always advantageous
same as 2nd class lever
Mneumonic
First Class Lever
fulcrum in center
Mneumonic
Second Class Lever
Resistance in center
Mneumonic
Third Class Lever
Effort in center
Parallel
Fasciculi parallel to longitudinal axis of muscle
Flat tendon
Quadrilateral shape
Fusiform
Modified parallel - muscle tapers
Convergent (triangular)
Broad origin coming to a point
Muscle has basic "D" or triangular shape
Pennate
Fascululi short compared to length of muscle
Tendon extends length of muscle
Fasciculi at oblique angle to tendon
Unipennate
Fascicles arranged on only one side of tendon
Bipennate
Fascicles are arranged on both sides of centrally located positioned tendons
Multipennate
Fascicles attached obliquely from many directions to several tendons
Circular
Fascicles in concentric arrangments from sphinter muscles that enclose an orifice (opening)
Antagonistic muscles
stretches and yields to the effect of the prime mover
Prime mover (agonist)
contract to cause an action
Antagonist
it's against the agonist
No.
Is the triceps brachii always considered to be an antagonistic muscle?
Synergists
muscles that assists other muscles. "helper" "work together"
Fixators
stabilize the origin of the prime mover so that the prime mover can act more efficiently
steady proximal end while distal end is moving
Fixator (example)
Muscles such as the pectoralis minor, trapezius, rhomboids, and others that stabilize or "fix" the scapula so the that the deltoid can move more efficiently abduct the arm

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