Glossary of Cephalosporins (PART 2)

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Which THREE cephs can cause bleeding tendencies and alcohol intolerance ?
Cefmetazole (Zefazone..2nd), cefoperazone (Cefobid, 3rd gen) and cefotetan (Cefotan..2nd)
Concomittant administration of cephalosporins with probenacid causes what ?
the probenacid delays excretion of the cephs and INCREASES circulating amount of roceph
When a cephalosporin is indicated for a gram positive infection, which generation should be prescribed ?
A first generation because they are the MOST active of all cephs against gram + and they are cheaper.
What is another use for the first generation cephs ?
surgical prophylaxis (less expensive and less broad antimicrobial spectrum)
Second generation cephs are often useful for...
pnuemonia caused by H.flu; klebsiella, pnuemococci and staphylococci
-oral cefuroxime (Zinacef) also useful in otitis, sinusitis and respiratory tract infections
Why are third generations the DOC against meningitis ?
Because they are highly effective against gram negative organisms AND because they penetrate the CNS.
Ceftazidime is especially useful for treating memingitis caused by this organism ?
psuedemonas aeruginosa
-it is THE most effective of all cephs against p. aeruginosa and is clearly the preferred ceph for treating infections caused by this microbe
What is another common use of the 2nd generation cephs ?
nosocomial infections
What are the DOC for infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, hflu, proteus, salmonella, klebsiella and serratia ?
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin..a 3rd generation) and cefotaxime (Claforan)= they are both third generations.
The third and fourth generation cephs should be AVOIDED in what situations ?
in situations where a first or second generation would do
-the treatment should be no broader than required,
Why should the prescriber consider duration of action when choosing a ceph ?
Half life of the cephs varies from 30 minutes to 9 hours
-drugs with a longer half life require fewer administrations per day = better compliance
Which two cephs have the longest half lives ?
Cefazolin (Keflex)
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Rocephin CANNOT be given PO
Most all cephs are eliminated via this route ?
Which two are not eliminated renally ?
Cefoperazone and ceftriaxone (Rocephin) and also deftriaxone
Most cephs cannot be absorbed orally, TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE..only 12 can be given orally

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