Glossary of Cellular Immunology
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- What is the definition of cellular immunology?
- -The immune response involving effector T lymphocytes, not B.
-Responsible for allograft rejecction, viral/protozoan infectinos, intracellular organisms.
- What 7 things is Cell-mediated immunity responsible for?
- 1. Contact sensitivity
2. Delayed hypersensitivity
3. Immunity to viral/fungal Ags
4. Immunity to intracellualr organisms.
5. Rejection of foreign tissue grafts
6. Elimination of tumor cells bearing neo Ag
7. Formation of chronic granulomas.
- In contrast to cell-mediated, what is humoral immunity responsible for?
- 1. Elimination of SOLUBLE Ag.
2. Destruction of EXTRAcellular organisms.
- What factors affect immunologic disease?
- 1. Age
4. Direct toxic/allrgc effect
- What does it mean to say that Tcells are "MHC restricted"?
- Antigen MUST be presented to T cells by MHC molecules, in order for an immune reaction to occur.
- How does MHC relate to HLA?
- The antigens are codominantly expressed, and both are located on chromosome 6.
- What are:
- 1 = Thymocytes
2 = E-rosette marker
3 = mature Tcell, TCR - on both Tc and Th
5 = Pan Tcell (some Bcells)
- what are:
- 4 = Thelpers
8 = Tcytotoxics
7 = Pan Tcells
- What's important to remember re: Thelper cells
- -CD4, recognize MHCII
-FC RECEPTOR FOR IGM AGGREGRATES
-orchestrate cmi, influence macrophages.
- what do Tc cells recognize?
- Ag associated with Class I MHC or just recognize MHCI alone.
- what are the major effectors in graft rejection?
- Tc cells
- Can Tc cells act alone?
- no; require help in the form of IL2 secreted by Th cells.
- In lymphocytes what % are:
- T = 70-85%
B = 10-15%
- What percent are
- Thelpers = 50-60%
Tcytotox = 20-25%
T4:T8 ratio is 2:1
- what are B cell markers?
- What is CD10?
- Early pre-b cell CALLA; if elevated in kids, might imply leukemia.
- What are CD19 and 20?
- Pan B-cell markers
- what is SIg?
- Surface immunoglobulin - obviously would be on Bcells.
- What is HLA-DR?
- How do Bcells function?
- Independent or dependent of Tcells.
- What are characteristics of Bcell antibody production independent of Tcells?
- -Only produce IgM
-Doesn't produce memory response
-Only works w/ some antigens
- Where are higher levels of Bcells found?
- -Lymph nodes
- What stimulates NK cells?
- IL2; same as stimulates Tc cells.
- what % of t cells are NK?
- What % of all lymphocytes are:
- T = 70-85%
B = 10-15%
NK = 10%
- What are the cell markers for NK cells?
- What's an internal check for calculating T4/T8 counts?
- T4 + T8 should app. = T3
- How do macrophages recognize cells to ingest?
- Fc receptors for Ab/opsonins
- What is the function of macrophages and monocytes?
- Antigen processing
- What is the normal number of macrophages/monocytes in the peripheral blood?
- what are the cell markers of macrophages/monocytes?
- What are 2 congenital Tcell disorders?
- what is digeorge's roughly?
- a hypoplastic thymus
- What are 3 acquired Tcell disorders?
- what are 4 congenital Bcell disorders?
- -Bruton's Xlinked agammaglobulinemia
-Selective IgA deficiency
-Hyper IgM syndrome
- what is CD45?
- a control used in Flow cytometry to ensure cells tested are wBCs
- what are mitogens?
- things in nature that stimulate lymphocyte proliferation.
- What is the clinical usefulness of flow cytometry in immunology?
- Monitor patients with AIDS, ARC, HIV, lymphoma, leukemia, and immunodeficiency.
- How does the HIV virus work?
- -Binds CD4 receptor on Thelpers.
-Reverse Transcrp. converts viral RNA to proviral DNA.
-Proviral DNA integrates into host DNA.
-New viral particles form
-Viral particles bud off, cause cell death.
- What 3 things allow HIV to avoid the immune system?
- 1. HIV can avoid the immune system.
2. Mutates very fast
3. Acts on cells that are needed to destroy it (Thelpers)
- what's the simplest wayto monitor HIV patients?
- monitor their T4 cells
- What are the 2 stages in HIV-infection? how are their characterized?
- ARC; CD4 <400/uL
AIDS; fit CDC criteria
- What usually characterizes a lymphoma?
- kappa or lambda gammaglobulin clonality.
- What are 3 types of BMT, and what makes them that?
- Autologous - from self
Allogeneic - from someone else
Syngeneic - from identical twin
- What must be matched for BMT?
- -Class I MHC (A and B)
-Class 2 MHC (DR and DQ)
- What 2 types of rejection occur sometimes after BMT?
- -GVHD graft vs host
-GVL graft vs leukemia
- what is GVL?
- the donor immunocompetent cells recognize patient's remaining malignant cells as foreign, and destroys them. not so bad..
- what are the 2 phases of GVHD?
- 1. Acute - develops in immediate post-transplant period
2. Chronic - 100 days after
- what are 4 types of graft rejection?
- -Hyperacute (on the table!)
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