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Glossary of Cells and Microbes Chapter1

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Cell
the basic unit that makes up all living things
cell membrane
the stucture that surronds and encloses a cell and controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
cell wall
the rigid suructure surrounding the cells of plants, monerans, and some protists
cell respiration
the process in cell in which oygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules
chloroplasts
a tiny green organelle that contains chlorophll and is found in plant cells and some protist cells
chromosomes
a threadlike structure in the nucleus of a cell; it carries the genes that determine the traits of offspring inherits frm its parent or parents
cytoplasm
the watery gel inside a cell
mitochondria
cell organelles in which energy is released from food
nuclear membrance
the structure that surrounds and encloses the nucleus and controls what substances move into and out of the nucleus
nucleus
the control center of a cell
vacuole
a structure in the cytoplasm in which food and other substances are stored
osmosis
the diffustion of water through a membrane
photosynthesis
the process by which green plants and other prodcers use light energy to make food
fermentation
a chemical change in which an organism breaks down suar to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol or lactic acid
cell theory
states that cells are the basic units of structure and functions of all living things
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perfrom one or more functions (the stomach and intestines are organ systems for digestion)
Organ
A part of a mulitcellular organism made up of group of tissues that work together to perfrom certain a certain function (heart & lungs are organs of the human body
cell differentiation
development of cells into different and specialized cell types (how cells develop into tissures)
mitosis
process in which one cell divdes to from 2 identical cells
diffusion
tendency of substances to move from an area of lesser concentration
producer
organisms that carry out photosynthesis

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