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Glossary of Cell Unit

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cell theory
1. All living things are made of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of life.
3. All cells come from other cells.
bacteria
smallest organism on earth - one celled organism
cell membrane
helps control what enters and leaves a cell
nucleus
controls most of the cell's activities
vacuole
stores food, water, minerals, and wastes
cytoplasm
gelatinlike substance that contains many chemicals that the cell needs
mitochondrion
converts food energy into a form that the cell can use
chromosomes
in the nucleus - contain DNA
DNA
a chemical that determines which traits an organism will have
cell wall
provides support and protection
chloroplast
captures energy from sunlight and uses it to convert carbon dioxide and water into food
photosynthesis
how plants, algae, and many bacteria make their food - occurs in leaf cells
cellular respiration
the energy cells need to function comes from cellular respiration
nerve cells
receive and deliver messages quickly
skin cells
form protective layer for body
fat cells
store fat
muscle cells
many long fibers that can contract and relax
tissues
groups of similar cells that do the same work
organ
different types of tissue working together form a structure - your heart is an organ
organ system
a group of organs working together to do a job - stomach, mouth, intestines, etc. make up digestive system
skeletal system
all the bones in your body - gives shape and support (bones)
skin
largest human body organ
muscular system
framework for body - makes all movement possible (muscles)
digestive system
takes in food and breaks it down so that the nutrients can be absorbed by the body (stomach, intestines, etc.)
urinary system
removes extra water, salts, and wastes from blood (kidneys, bladder)
respiratory system
moves oxygen into the body and waste gases out of the body (lungs, trachea, etc.)
circulatory system
moves nutrients and oxygen to cells and removes wastes (heart, blood, blood vessels)
nervous system
control system of body - sends messages - made up of brain, spinal cord, nerves
reproductive system
organs and structures in males and females that allow humans to reproduce

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