Glossary of Cell Test 2

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the nucleus directs all of the cells activites, including reproduction
The gel like fluid in which many organelles are found
Produces proteins. they may be attached to the ER or they may float in the cytoplasm
Golgi Bodies
recieves materials from the ER and sends the to other parts of the cell. they also release materials outside the cell
MOst of th3e cells energy is produced there within these rod shaped organelles
Cell Membrane
it protects the cell and regulates what comes in and out of the cell
Cell membrane (for animals)
BEcause they dont have a cell wall, the cell membran forms a barrier between the cytoplasm and the enviorment outside the cell
sores water and food and waste products and other materials. it is in the cytoplasm
Vacuole (animal cells)
Some animal cells have them that store food, water, waste, and other materials
The organelles capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
cell wall
a stiff wall that surrounds a plant cell and protects it
Endoplasimc Reticulum (ER)
A network of passage ways that carries materials from one part of the cell to another
these small organelles contain chemicals that break down food particles and worn out cell parts
Strands that cotain genetic material, and the instruction for the directing of the cells functions
where ribosomes are made
What is the differemce between a cell from a plant leaf and from a plant root?
Plant leaf has chloroplats and root doesnt
What are the levels of organization from simple cells to organisms
Cell-nerve cell,tissue-nerve tissue,organ- brain, organ system- nerve system, organism- human\
What is a tissue?
A group of the same cells which do a certain function
What is the difference between human and frog blood cells?
Frogs have a nucleus and humans dont, frog cells are bigger
How does the design of a blood cell fit its function?
Since it is small, it can move through veins and artiries easier, also since it doesnt have a nucleus, it can carry more oxygen and carbon dioxide through the body
How do you think the shape of a muscle cell matches its function?
How it matches is that when the cell contrats and stretchs, it has more room to stretch because it is very thin
How neurons shape matches its function?
How it matches is that since they have long branches, it allows the dendrites to recieve and pick up better impulses
Most chemical reactions couldnt happen without what present?
what is diffusion?
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules
active transport
the movement of materials thoguh a cell memnbrane using cellular energy
passive transport
the movement of materials thourgh a cell membrane without using energy
Transport proteins?
A way that cells move materials that transport proteins in the cell membran by picking them up with molecules outside the cell and carry them in, using energy
Diffusion of oxygen?
Before diffusion:
there is a higher concentration of oxygen molecules outside the cell than inside the wall

The concentraion of oxygen molecules is the same outside and inside the cell
Muscle cells and root cells? why do you think they have many mitochondria?
Muscle cells need them because they need energy to carry out tehre functions
Root cells need them to give energy and support to the whole plant

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