Glossary of Cell Structure and Organization

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How does a light microscope view a specimen?
by passing visible light through
Define Magnication.
Ratio of an objects image to real size
Define Resolution.
measure of clarity of the image
What microscope should be used in order to study living cells?
light microscope
What are the 6 techniques for a light micrscope?
· Brightfield (unstained)
· Brightfield (stained)
· Confocal
· Differential-interference contrast
·Phase Contrast
What kind of details does a Scanning Microscope provide?
a detailed study of the surface of a specimen
What are the 2 types of Electron Microscopes?
· Scanning Electron
· Transmission Electron Microscope
What are the disadvantages to using a SEM?
method used to prepare specimen kills the cell
Which Microscope shows a 3D image of a specimen?
Scanning Electron Microscope
What kind of details does a transmission Electron Microscope provide?
a detailed study of the internal ultrastructue of the cells
Define Cell Fractionation.
takes cells apart and separates major organelles
Define Centrifugation.
fractionates cells into their component parts
Which type of cell lacks a nucleas?
Which type of cell has their Dna located in the nucleoid?
Which type of cell has DNA surrounded by a nuclear envelope?
Which cell type does Bacteria and Archaea categorize as?
Which cell type does protists, fungi, animals, plants categorize as?
What are the common features of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (5)?
· bounded by plasma membrane
· have cytosol
· contain chromosomes
· have ribosomes
· have RNA & DNA
Define Cytosol.
a semifluid substance
Describe the (3) characteristics of a Cyanobacteria.
· photosynthetic prokaryotes
· thylakoids in cytosol
· heterocysts
Which cell contains no organelles?
What are the functions of a Plasma Membrane?
functions as a selective barrier, by allowing sufficient passage of nutrients and waste
Where is the cytoplasm located?
the region between the nucleus and plasma membrane
What does the cytoplasm contain?
all the materials in the plasma membrane
What are the functions of the ribosomes?
synthesizing proteins
What are the functions of the Endomembrane System?
regulating protein traffic and performing metabolic functions in the cell
Which ER contains the ribosomes?
Rough ER
What are the functions of Smooth ER (4)?
· synthesizes lipids
· metabolizes carbs
· stores calcium
· detoxifies poison
What are the functions of the Rough ER (2)?
· has bound ribosomes
· produces proteins and membranes, which are distrubted by transport vesicles
What are the functions of the Golgi Apparatus?
· modifies rough ER products
· manufactures certain macromolecules
What are the functions of central vacuoles?
holds important organic compounds and water
What are the functions of contractile vacuoles?
pump excess water out of protists cells
What surrounds the central vacuole?
What is considered the site of cellular respiration?
Describe the Endosymbiotic Theory of Eukaryote.
· mitochondria and chloroplast represent ingested prokaryotes
· nucleus may have originated from an invagination of the plasma membrane
What contains chlorophyll?
What are the functions of chloroplasts?
capture light energy
What does peroxisomes produce?
hydrogen peroxide, which converts to water
What is a network of fiber that organizes structures and activities in the cell
What provides mechanical support to the cell?
What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
cell motility, utilizing motor protein
What are the (3) functions of microtubules?
· provides shape of the cell
· guide movement of organelle
· helping separate the chromosome copies in dividing cells
What stores microtubular organization for the flagella?
What is motor protein responsible for?
bending movement of cilia and flagella
Describe Katagener's Syndrome.
human male sperm are sterile, due to no mobility, but can be used for IVF
What are the functions (2) of microfilaments?
· support
· movement
What 2 proteins does microfilament and motility contain?
· myosin
· actin
What does Amoeboid movement involve?
the contraction of actin and myosin filaments
What are the functions of intermediate filaments?
· support cell shape
· fix organelles in place
What are the (5) functions of Extracellular Matrix?
· Adhesion
· helps bind tissue together
· Movement
· Regulation
· Support

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