Glossary of Cell Structure and Organization
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- How does a light microscope view a specimen?
- by passing visible light through
- Define Magnication.
- Ratio of an objects image to real size
- Define Resolution.
- measure of clarity of the image
- What microscope should be used in order to study living cells?
- light microscope
- What are the 6 techniques for a light micrscope?
- · Brightfield (unstained)
· Brightfield (stained)
· Differential-interference contrast
- What kind of details does a Scanning Microscope provide?
- a detailed study of the surface of a specimen
- What are the 2 types of Electron Microscopes?
- · Scanning Electron
· Transmission Electron Microscope
- What are the disadvantages to using a SEM?
- method used to prepare specimen kills the cell
- Which Microscope shows a 3D image of a specimen?
- Scanning Electron Microscope
- What kind of details does a transmission Electron Microscope provide?
- a detailed study of the internal ultrastructue of the cells
- Define Cell Fractionation.
- takes cells apart and separates major organelles
- Define Centrifugation.
- fractionates cells into their component parts
- Which type of cell lacks a nucleas?
- Which type of cell has their Dna located in the nucleoid?
- Which type of cell has DNA surrounded by a nuclear envelope?
- Which cell type does Bacteria and Archaea categorize as?
- Which cell type does protists, fungi, animals, plants categorize as?
- What are the common features of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (5)?
- · bounded by plasma membrane
· have cytosol
· contain chromosomes
· have ribosomes
· have RNA & DNA
- Define Cytosol.
- a semifluid substance
- Describe the (3) characteristics of a Cyanobacteria.
- · photosynthetic prokaryotes
· thylakoids in cytosol
- Which cell contains no organelles?
- What are the functions of a Plasma Membrane?
- functions as a selective barrier, by allowing sufficient passage of nutrients and waste
- Where is the cytoplasm located?
- the region between the nucleus and plasma membrane
- What does the cytoplasm contain?
- all the materials in the plasma membrane
- What are the functions of the ribosomes?
- synthesizing proteins
- What are the functions of the Endomembrane System?
- regulating protein traffic and performing metabolic functions in the cell
- Which ER contains the ribosomes?
- Rough ER
- What are the functions of Smooth ER (4)?
- · synthesizes lipids
· metabolizes carbs
· stores calcium
· detoxifies poison
- What are the functions of the Rough ER (2)?
- · has bound ribosomes
· produces proteins and membranes, which are distrubted by transport vesicles
- What are the functions of the Golgi Apparatus?
- · modifies rough ER products
· manufactures certain macromolecules
- What are the functions of central vacuoles?
- holds important organic compounds and water
- What are the functions of contractile vacuoles?
- pump excess water out of protists cells
- What surrounds the central vacuole?
- What is considered the site of cellular respiration?
- Describe the Endosymbiotic Theory of Eukaryote.
- · mitochondria and chloroplast represent ingested prokaryotes
· nucleus may have originated from an invagination of the plasma membrane
- What contains chlorophyll?
- What are the functions of chloroplasts?
- capture light energy
- What does peroxisomes produce?
- hydrogen peroxide, which converts to water
- What is a network of fiber that organizes structures and activities in the cell
- What provides mechanical support to the cell?
- What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
- cell motility, utilizing motor protein
- What are the (3) functions of microtubules?
- · provides shape of the cell
· guide movement of organelle
· helping separate the chromosome copies in dividing cells
- What stores microtubular organization for the flagella?
- What is motor protein responsible for?
- bending movement of cilia and flagella
- Describe Katagener's Syndrome.
- human male sperm are sterile, due to no mobility, but can be used for IVF
- What are the functions (2) of microfilaments?
- · support
- What 2 proteins does microfilament and motility contain?
- · myosin
- What does Amoeboid movement involve?
- the contraction of actin and myosin filaments
- What are the functions of intermediate filaments?
- · support cell shape
· fix organelles in place
- What are the (5) functions of Extracellular Matrix?
- · Adhesion
· helps bind tissue together
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