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Glossary of Cell Review

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Interphase
Cell grows and makes a copy of DNA.
Prophase
Nuclear membrane breaks down and you get chromosomes and spindle fibers
Metophase
Spindle fibers attach to the centromere and line up in the middle
Anophase
Chromatids split and go to opposite sides
Telophase
A new nuclear membrane forms around each region of chromosomes, chromosomes go back to chromatin
Cytokinesis
The membrane pinches in around the middle of cell and cell splits into two
Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Replication
the specific process during which the cell copies
Nucleus
Acts as the cell's control center
Cytoplasm
Area between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Passive Transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy
A Cell
The basic unit of structure and function in living things
Diffusion
Process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
A Microscope
An instrument that makes small objects look larger
Vacuole
Storage area of the cell
Organelles
Tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell
Cell Wall
The rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and other organisms
Cell Membrane
Forms the outside boundary that seperates the cell from its environment in cells without cell walls
Mitochondria
Produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A maze of passageways that carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
Ribosomes
Runction as factories to produce proteins
Golgi Bodies
Recieve proteins and other newly formed materials and distribute them to other parts of the cell
Chloroplast
Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Lysosomes
Small, round structures in cells that break down large food particles into smaller ones
Active Transport
Molecules are moved from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration and energy is needed
Selectively Permeable Membrane
Small particles come in; big particles are kept out
Cell Theory
A widely accepted explanation of relationship between cells and living things
Resolution
The ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object
Transmission Electron Microscop(TEM)
Electrons pass through the object
Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM)
object coated with metal (usually gold); electrons bounce off the object
Electron Microscope
A microscope that uses a beam of electrons to examine a specimen
Compound Microscope
A microscope with two or more lenses
Hooke
One of the first people to observe cells
Leeuwenhoek
Found one-celled organisms
Schleiden
Concluded that all plants are made up of cells
Schwann
Concluded all animals are made up of cells
Virchow
Proposed that all cells come from other cells and constructed the cell theory
Magnification
The ability to make things look larger than they are

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