Glossary of Cell Phys Ch 1
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Dorsal body cavity consists of the Cranial cavity (brain) and vertebral column (backbone)/vertebral (spinal) canal.
- What are the meninges?
- Three layers of protective tissue that line the dorsal body cavity
- What separates the thoracic cavity from the adbominopelvic cavity?
- The diaphragm (dome-shaped muscle)
- What are the organs inside the ventral body cavity called?
- What makes up the ventral (anterior) body cavity?
- Superior thoracic and inferior abdominopelvic cavities
- The thoracic cavity is the superior or anterior part of the ventral body cavity?
- What is the mediastinum?
- Central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; from sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphragm
- What is located in the mediastinum?
- Heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large bld vessels
- What is the main difference between negative and positive feedback systems?
- Negative feedback reverses the original stimulus
Positive feedback enhances/reinforces/ intensifies the original stimulus
- Whar are the 3 basic components of a feedback system?
Negative feedback reverses a change in a controlled condition
Usually, positive feedback systems reinforce conditions that do not happen very often, whereas negative feedback systems regulate conditions in the body that remain fairly stable over long periods.
- Define lateral
- Farther from the midline
In the Anatomical position the subject stands erect facing the observer, head level, eyes facing directly forward, feet flat and directed forward, arms at sides w/palms turned forward
Prone means lying face down
Supine means lying face up
- Name the major regions of the external body
- Head (skull/face)
Neck (supports head/attaches to trunk)
Trunk (chest, abs, pelvis)
Upper limbs (shoulder, armpit, arm forearm, wrist, hand)
Lower limbs (buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, foot)
- What is a sagittal plane?
- Vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides
- Verticle, Right/left side
- What is a midsagittal plane or medial plane?
- Vertical, EQUAL right and left sides
- Parasagittal Plane is?
- Vertical, UNEQUAL right/left sides
- What is a frontal or coronal plane?
- Front (anterior) to back (posterior)
- What is a transverse plane?
- Divides into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
Other names for a transverse plane are cross-sectional or horizontal planes
- What is an oblique plane?
- Passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane, sagittal or frontal plane
A section is one flat surface of a three-dimensional structure
- Define superior
- Toward the head, or upper part of structure
- Define inferior
- Away from the head, or lower part of structure
- Define anterior
- Nearer to or at the front of the body
- Define posterior
- Nearer to or at the back of the body
- Define medial
- Nearer to the midline
- Define intermediate
- Between 2 structures
- Define Ipsilateral
- On the same side of the body as another structure
- Define Contralateral
- On the opposite side of the body from another structure
- Define proximal
- Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk;nearer to the origination of a structure
- Define Distal
- Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure
- Define superficial
- Toward or on the surface of the body
- Define Deep
- Away from the surface of the body
- What are the 2 major body cavities?
- Dorsal and Ventral
Dorsal cavity has two subdivisions, the cranial cavity and vertebral canal
- What is blood plasma?
- ECF w/in blood vessels is termed blood plasma
- What is lymph?
- ECF w/in lymphatic vessels
- What is cerebrospinal fluid?
- ECF w/in the brain and spinal cord
- What is synovial fluid?
- ECF w/in joints
- What is aqueous humor and vitreous body?
- ECF in the eyes
Interstitial fluid surrounds all body cells and is called the body's internal environment
- What is extracellular fluid (ECF)?
- Fluid outside the cell
- What is "differentiation"?
- Cell process of changing from unspecialized to specialized cell.
- What is "Reproduction"?
- Formationof new cells for tissue growth, repair, replacement or reproducing new "individual"
- What are stem cells?
- "Ancestor" cells that can undergo differentiation to become another type of cell
- Define Homeostasis
- Condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to regulatory processes
- What is intracellular fluid (ICF)?
- Fluid w/in cells
Dissolved in the water of ICF and ECF are oxygen, nutrients proteins, and a variety of ions
- The Musclar System consists of what?
- Skeletal muscles
- The Skeletal system consists of what?
- What is interstitial fluid?
- Extracellular fluid (ECF) that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues
- What is Anabolism?
- Building up complex chemical substances from smaller,simpler ones
- The Nervous System consists of what?
- Name the 11 organ systems of the body
Lymphatic & Immune
- The Integumentary System consists of what?
Skin, sweat & oil glands
- Define Gross anatomy
- Structures that can be seen w/out microscope
- What is palpation?
- Feeling body surfaces w/hands
- What is auscultation?
- Listening to body sounds w/stethoscope or other instrument
- What is percussion?
- Tapping on the body surface to listen to the echo
- List the 6 most important life processes of the human body.
- Metabolism (Catabolism, Anabolism)
- What is metabolism?
- Sum of all chemical processes in the body
- What is Catabolism?
- Breaking down complex chemical substances into smaller ones
- What does "responsiveness" mean?
- Body detects & responds to changes in internal/external environment
- What is "movement"?
- Movement includes motion of the whole body, indiviudal organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells
- What is "growth"?
- An increase in body size resulting from an increase in size of existing cells, no. of cells, material between cells
- The Reproductive System does what?
- Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes)
Gonads release hormones that regulate reproduction
Mammary glands provide nurishment for babies
Ovaries produce eggs for reproduction
Uterine/Fallopian tubes assist repro
Vagina is a birth canal (among other uses)
- The Reproductive System is composed of what?
- Gonads (testes/ovaries
- Define Exercise Physiology
- Study of changes in cell and organ functions from exercising
- Define Pathophysiology
- Study of functional changes from disease and aging
- Name the structural organization of the human body (lowest to highest)
Chemicals form cells, cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form systems and systems make up an organism
- The Endocrine System consists of what?
- Hormone producing glands & hormone producing cells.
- The Lymphatic & Immune System consists of what?
- Lymphatic fluid and vessels
- The Cardiovascular system consists of what?
- Blood and blood vessels
- The Respiratory System consists of what?
- Larynx (voice box)
- The Integumentary System does what?
- Protects the body
Regulates body temp
Makes Vit D
Detects sensations (touch, pain, warmth, cold)
- The Muscular System does what?
- Produces body movements
Stabilizes body position (posture)
- The Skeletal system does what?
- Supports and protects the body
Aids body movements
Houses cells that produce blood cells
Stores minerals and lipids (fats)
- The Nervous System does what?
- Generates nerve impulses that regulate body functions
Detects changes in internal/external environment
Responds to change (muscular contractions/glandular secretions
- The Endocrine System does what?
- Releases hormones to regulates body activities
Hormones are chemical messengers
- The Lymphatic system does what?
- Returns proteins and fluid to blood
Carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood
Houses structures where lymphocytes mature and proliferate
- The Cardiovascular System does what?
- Heart pumps blood through vessels
Bld carries oxygen/nutrients to cells
Bld carries carbon dioxide/wastes away from cells
Blood regulates PH, temp, & water content of body fluids
Bld helps defend against disease& mend damaged bld vessels
- The Respiratory System does what?
- Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to bld
and carbon dioside from bld to sxhaled air
Regulates PH of body fluids
Air flowing over vocal cords produces sound
- The Digestive System consists of what?
- The Digestive system does what?
- Breaks down food
Eliminates solid wastes
- The Urinary System does what?
- Produces, stores, eliminates urine
Regulates volume and chemical composition of bld
Maintains PH of body fluids
Maintains mineral balance
Regulates production of red bld cells
- The Urinary system is composed of what?
- Define anatomy
- Science of body structures & the relationships among structures
- Define Physiology
- Science of body functions
- Define Embryology
- Study of structures that emerge from ferterilized egg through 8th week in utero
- Define Developmental biology
- Study of structures that emerge from fertilized egg to adult form
- Define Histology
- Study of microscopic structures of tissues
- Define Surface anatomy
- Study of anatomical landmarks on body surface..through sight and feel (palpation)
- Systemic anatomy
- Study of body "systems" - nervous, respiratory, etc
- Define Regional anatomy
- Study of body regions, i.e. head, chest
- Define radiographic anatomy
- Study of body structures seen w/x-rays
- Define pathological anatomy
- Study of structural changes associated w/disease
- Define Neurophysiology
- Study of functional properties of nerve cells
- Define endocrinology
- Study of hormones & how they control body functions
- Define Cardiovascular physiology
- Study of functions of the heart & blood vessels
- Define Immunology
- Study of how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents
- Define Respiratory physiology
- Study of functions of the air passageways & lungs
- Define Renal physiology
- Study of function of kidneys
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