Glossary of Cell Organelles and Their Function
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- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Interconnected membranes with spaces between them forming canals: has openings to the outside of teh ceel and is connected to certain other organelles and to the nuclear membrane
- Responsible for the sysntesis of protein moleucles
- Golgi Apparatus
- Responsible for the systhesis of carbohydrate molecules for export for te cell
- Energy source of the cell. ATP systhesis. "Power house of the cell". Present ingreat nuber isn muscle tissue.
- Capable of breaking down and digesting moleucles of protien and carbohydrates when thier enqymes are released. White blood cells have a great number of lysosomes.
- Help form a spindle that appears during mitosis.
- Cell Nucleus
- Directs the activities of the cell: contains relatively large quantites of DNA.
- Tiny hair like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
- Small hair like projections of the cytoplasmice membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
- A single projection, such as found on a sperm cell allowing for porpulsion of that cell.
- Cell Membrane
- Functions as a gateway for substances such as oxygen and food molecules to enter and carbon dioxide and wastes to leave a cell.
- Passive Transport Systems:
- A system in which movement occurs that does not require a direct expenditure of cellular energy.
- Process by which molecules or ions scatter or spread themselves from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
- Net Diffusion
- The movement of more particles of a substance in one direction than in the opposite direction.
- Equal Diffusion
- The movement of the same number of solutes and water particles in each direction.
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Carrier and transporter enqymes move molecules across cell membranes. (definition taken from Scanlon Sanders Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 3)
- The diffusin of a fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.
- Movement of water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. (definition taken from Scanlon Sanders Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 3)
- Hydrostatic Pressure
- The force or weight of a fluid pushing against some surface.
- The diffusion of solutes throught a selectivly permeable membrane that pass smaller moleucles out but keep larger molecules in.
- Active Transport Systems
- Movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration, requires the use of ATP.
- Permease System
- Movement of molecules or ions against a concentration gradient (not mentioned in Scanlon and Sanders)
- Process by which cells engulf tiny droplets of liquid from their surroundings
Scanlon and Sanders definition- A moving cell engulfs something.
- Process by which cells engulf solid particles, such as bacteria and cellular debris.
Scanlon and Sanders definition- A stationalry cell engulfs something.
- Types of Tissue
- Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve
- Epithelial Tissue
- Covers the body, organs, and surfaces. Serves as a protective barrier.
- Contains no blood vessels, specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood (absorption and secretion).
- Connective Tissue
- Functions to support the body and its parts, to connect and hold them together, to transport substances through the body and to protect it form foreign invaders.
- Types of Connective Tissue
- Reticular, Areolar, Adipose, Bone, Cartilage, Hemopoietic, Blood, Dense Fibrous
- Sheet like network of cells. Associated with the linings of blood vessels in the bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph. (not mentioned in Scanlon and Sanders)
- composed of fibers in a loose, sticky gel and used to hold adjoining structure together
- consists of fat tissue to protect, insulate, and cushion intenal organs.
- most tigid due to the presence of mineral salts such as calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Also consist of collagen.
- Plastic-like material comosed largely of fibers and the protein chondrin. Functions to support parts, provide framework and attachments and to protect underlying tissues.
- formationof blood and lymphatic cells in the red marrow cavities of bones. Imortant in the defense against disease.
- Vascular tissue, cells are suspended in the liguid intercellular matrix plasma.
- Dense Fibrous
- consists mainly on bundles of fibers arranged in parallel rows in a fluid/gel matrix. Composes tendons and ligaments. Contains relatively few fibroblast cells.
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