Glossary of Cell Organelles and Their Function

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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Interconnected membranes with spaces between them forming canals: has openings to the outside of teh ceel and is connected to certain other organelles and to the nuclear membrane
Responsible for the sysntesis of protein moleucles
Golgi Apparatus
Responsible for the systhesis of carbohydrate molecules for export for te cell
Energy source of the cell. ATP systhesis. "Power house of the cell". Present ingreat nuber isn muscle tissue.
Capable of breaking down and digesting moleucles of protien and carbohydrates when thier enqymes are released. White blood cells have a great number of lysosomes.
Help form a spindle that appears during mitosis.
Cell Nucleus
Directs the activities of the cell: contains relatively large quantites of DNA.
Tiny hair like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
Small hair like projections of the cytoplasmice membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
A single projection, such as found on a sperm cell allowing for porpulsion of that cell.
Cell Membrane
Functions as a gateway for substances such as oxygen and food molecules to enter and carbon dioxide and wastes to leave a cell.
Passive Transport Systems:
A system in which movement occurs that does not require a direct expenditure of cellular energy.
Process by which molecules or ions scatter or spread themselves from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
Net Diffusion
The movement of more particles of a substance in one direction than in the opposite direction.
Equal Diffusion
The movement of the same number of solutes and water particles in each direction.
Facilitated Diffusion
Carrier and transporter enqymes move molecules across cell membranes. (definition taken from Scanlon Sanders Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 3)
The diffusin of a fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.
Movement of water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. (definition taken from Scanlon Sanders Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 3)
Hydrostatic Pressure
The force or weight of a fluid pushing against some surface.
The diffusion of solutes throught a selectivly permeable membrane that pass smaller moleucles out but keep larger molecules in.
Active Transport Systems
Movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration, requires the use of ATP.
Permease System
Movement of molecules or ions against a concentration gradient (not mentioned in Scanlon and Sanders)
Process by which cells engulf tiny droplets of liquid from their surroundings

Scanlon and Sanders definition- A moving cell engulfs something.
Process by which cells engulf solid particles, such as bacteria and cellular debris.

Scanlon and Sanders definition- A stationalry cell engulfs something.
Types of Tissue
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve
Epithelial Tissue
Covers the body, organs, and surfaces. Serves as a protective barrier.
Contains no blood vessels, specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood (absorption and secretion).
Connective Tissue
Functions to support the body and its parts, to connect and hold them together, to transport substances through the body and to protect it form foreign invaders.
Types of Connective Tissue
Reticular, Areolar, Adipose, Bone, Cartilage, Hemopoietic, Blood, Dense Fibrous
Sheet like network of cells. Associated with the linings of blood vessels in the bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph. (not mentioned in Scanlon and Sanders)
composed of fibers in a loose, sticky gel and used to hold adjoining structure together
consists of fat tissue to protect, insulate, and cushion intenal organs.
most tigid due to the presence of mineral salts such as calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Also consist of collagen.
Plastic-like material comosed largely of fibers and the protein chondrin. Functions to support parts, provide framework and attachments and to protect underlying tissues.
formationof blood and lymphatic cells in the red marrow cavities of bones. Imortant in the defense against disease.
Vascular tissue, cells are suspended in the liguid intercellular matrix plasma.
Dense Fibrous
consists mainly on bundles of fibers arranged in parallel rows in a fluid/gel matrix. Composes tendons and ligaments. Contains relatively few fibroblast cells.

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