Glossary of Cell Organelles and Functions

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Functions as the home for the organelles and is found in pro. and eu.
maintains cell shape, moves organelles, and moves cell; found only in eu.
contains the genetic material; found only in eu.
produces energy for the cell; found only in eu.
synthesizes proteins; found in both pro. and eu.
manufactures and transports proteins, manufactures fats; found only in eu.
endoplasmic reticulum
packages proteins for secretion; found only in eu.
Golgi complex
digests wastes; found only in eu.
makes food; found only in PLANT eu.
used for storage; found mainly in PLANT eu.
provides stability and protection; found only in PLANT eu. or some pro.
cell wall
a Dutch clothing dealer who made an accurate single lens microscope
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
a whiplike structure projecting from the surface of some cells and single-celled organisms that allows the organism to swim
the main component of the cytoplasm; a grayish, gel-like liquid containing the nucleus, organelles, and cytoskeletion
thick, hollow rods that provide a strong scaffold for the cell
thin rods made of a protein called actin that are strung around the perimeter of the cell to help it withstand strain
a membrane separating the interior of the nucleus from the cytosol that only lets select molecules in and out
nuclear envelope
proteins the DNA is wrapped around
the stringy web of genetic material and histone proteins found in the nucleus of eu. cells
a physical structure composed of a single long strand of DNA containing along its length many genes
a dense, spherical body inside the nucleus of a cell, makes the RNA that is a structural componen of the ribosomes
a compartment within the mitochondria formed by the second membrane where the chemical reactions of respiration of the cell take place
mitochondrial matrix
the process by which plants convert light energy into organic materials, such as glucose
a pigment located within a chloroplast that absorbs light in plant cells
type of liquid found in cell membranes; made up of a single hydrophilic phosphate head and two nonpolor hydrophobic lipid tails
the transport or natural drift of molecules traveling from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; does not requre outside energy
process by which water naturally travels from an area of high water concentration to low water concentration
a situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is lower than what an organism contains
a situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is higher than what it contains
a situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is equivalent to what it contains
isotonic solution
diffusion of molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane independently, but rather through permeable protein channels embedded in the membrane; does not require outside energy
facillitated diffusion
process by which liquids or small solid particles are taken into a cell in the form of small vesicles that are produced through the invagination of the cell membrane
process by which molecules are secreted from the cell, occurs when a vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside
type of endocytosis where the cell takes in large solid food particles that it then digests
type of endocytosis where the cell takes in drops of cellular fluid containing dissolved nutrients

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