Glossary of Cell Organelles and Functions
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- Functions as the home for the organelles and is found in pro. and eu.
- maintains cell shape, moves organelles, and moves cell; found only in eu.
- contains the genetic material; found only in eu.
- produces energy for the cell; found only in eu.
- synthesizes proteins; found in both pro. and eu.
- manufactures and transports proteins, manufactures fats; found only in eu.
- endoplasmic reticulum
- packages proteins for secretion; found only in eu.
- Golgi complex
- digests wastes; found only in eu.
- makes food; found only in PLANT eu.
- used for storage; found mainly in PLANT eu.
- provides stability and protection; found only in PLANT eu. or some pro.
- cell wall
- a Dutch clothing dealer who made an accurate single lens microscope
- Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
- a whiplike structure projecting from the surface of some cells and single-celled organisms that allows the organism to swim
- the main component of the cytoplasm; a grayish, gel-like liquid containing the nucleus, organelles, and cytoskeletion
- thick, hollow rods that provide a strong scaffold for the cell
- thin rods made of a protein called actin that are strung around the perimeter of the cell to help it withstand strain
- a membrane separating the interior of the nucleus from the cytosol that only lets select molecules in and out
- nuclear envelope
- proteins the DNA is wrapped around
- the stringy web of genetic material and histone proteins found in the nucleus of eu. cells
- a physical structure composed of a single long strand of DNA containing along its length many genes
- a dense, spherical body inside the nucleus of a cell, makes the RNA that is a structural componen of the ribosomes
- a compartment within the mitochondria formed by the second membrane where the chemical reactions of respiration of the cell take place
- mitochondrial matrix
- the process by which plants convert light energy into organic materials, such as glucose
- a pigment located within a chloroplast that absorbs light in plant cells
- type of liquid found in cell membranes; made up of a single hydrophilic phosphate head and two nonpolor hydrophobic lipid tails
- the transport or natural drift of molecules traveling from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; does not requre outside energy
- process by which water naturally travels from an area of high water concentration to low water concentration
- a situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is lower than what an organism contains
- a situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is higher than what it contains
- a situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is equivalent to what it contains
- isotonic solution
- diffusion of molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane independently, but rather through permeable protein channels embedded in the membrane; does not require outside energy
- facillitated diffusion
- process by which liquids or small solid particles are taken into a cell in the form of small vesicles that are produced through the invagination of the cell membrane
- process by which molecules are secreted from the cell, occurs when a vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside
- type of endocytosis where the cell takes in large solid food particles that it then digests
- type of endocytosis where the cell takes in drops of cellular fluid containing dissolved nutrients
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