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Glossary of Cell Game Show

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chromatids
These condense into an X-shape before mitosis
Endocytosis
How a cell membrane moves large particles into the cell
diffusion
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
cell cycle
This process ends when a cell divides and new cells are formed
homologus chromosomes
Human body cells have 23 pairs
active transport
The movement of particles through proteins against the normal direction of diffusion
phospholipids
Oxygen can slip between these molecules, which make up much of the cell membrane.
centromere
This is the region where chromatids are held together
binary fission
Bacteria double this way
exocytosis
This word means "outside the cell"
osmosis
Diffusion of water across a membrane
cellular respiration
The way organisms get energy from food using oxygen
mitosis
The complicated process of chromosome separation: the second stage of the cell cycle
photosynthesis
The process by which plants capture light energy and change it into food
passive transport
The diffusion of particles through special "doorways" in the cell mambrane
cytokinesis
The cytoplasm splits in two during this process
cell plate
During the third stage of the cell cycle, this forms in eukaryotic cells with cell walls.
fermentation
When there's no oxygen for your cells, they use this to get energy
proteins
Special doorways in the cell membrane are made of these.
Homologous
Chromosomes with matching information
Sex Chromosomes
Carry genes that determine the sex of offspring
Alleles
Two genes that carry the same structure
Genotype
An organism's inherited combination of alleles
Mitosis
Nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes
Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Meiosis
Cell division that produces sex cells
Recessive
Kind of trait that seemed to vanish in the offspring produced in Mendel's first experiment

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