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Glossary of Cell Flash Cards

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What is a cell wall?
• Is a framework for the cell.
• Located outside cell membrane
• Primary-cellulose
• Secondary is made up of cellulose and lignin (woody stems)
• Pectin (glue) holds all cells together
What is the chloroplast?
• Tap light for photosynthesis
What is the cell membrane?
• Separates cell from surrounding, regulates what enters and leaves cell, protects and supports cell
Structure
• Lipid bylayer
• Surface protein
• Channel proteins
• Protein pumps
• Carbohydrates for ID (indentify) molecules (allow to pass through or not)
What are the centrioles?
• 2 bundles of microtubules
• Right angles to each other
• Are near the nucleus
• Used in cell division
What is the cytoplasm?
Jelly-like material, between nucleus and cell membrane, contains organelles
To hold organelles together, gives cell shape
What is the Cytoskeleton?
• Nucri tybykes’
o Support and shape
o Move organelles
o Form centriole and spindle
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum, smooth?
• Transports materials
• Smooth ER stores enzymes and chemicals
What it the Rough ER?
• Transports materials
• Rough ER involved in protein synthesis
What is the Golgi?
• Made up of smooth ER
• Protein modifier
• Flattened membranes
• Collect, modify, package, distribute molecules
• Makes lysosomes
What is the lysosome?
up crew
• Contains chemicals and enzymes for digestion
• Made by Golgi body
What is the mitochondria?
• Provides power for cell,
• 2 layer membrane
• cellular respiration-produces energy
What is the nucleolus? Where is it located?
• Produces RNA and protein and ribosomes
In the nucleus
What is the nucleus?
• Hereditary information
• Eukaryotes have a nucleus
o Plant and animal cells
• Prokaryotes do not
o Bacteria
What is a ribosome?
• “protein factory”
• Produces RNA and protein
• Floats in the membrane or free
• Produced in Nucleolus
What is a vacuole?
• Storage tank
• Fluid filled sac
• Store water (pinocytosis), food, minerals, salts
• Contractile vacuoles maintain water balance in paramecia
o When it is filled with water, it becomes pressurized (Turgor pressure), thus holding up the plant stem.
• Formed on the cell membrane
What is chromatin?
• Consists of DNA and protein
• Indistinct mass
• Condenses into chromosomes during cell division
What is the nucleoplasm?
• Jelly-like material inside nuclear membrane
• Has DNARNA through pores to tell cell
• Mostly water
What is the nuclear membrane?
• Envelope the nucleus
• Double layer
• Has pores
What are organelles?
• Basic unit of Life function
Who was Robert Hooke and what did he do?
• Came up with the word cellcork cell
Who was van Leewenhoik? What did he do?
• One of the first people to use a microscope to study nature
Who was virchow? What did he do?
He came up with the cell theory
o All living things are composed of cells
o Calls are the basic units of structures and function in living things
o New cells are produced from existing cells
Wha was Scleiden? What did he do?
All plants are made of cells
Who was Schwann and what did he do?
• Concluded that all animals were made of cells
What is a prokaryote cell?
An animal or plant cell that has multiple organelles
What is a eukaryote cell?
A bacteria or single-celled organism.
What is movement in the cell carried out by?
By the microfilaments and microtubules.
What are microtubules and microfilaments?
Microtubules-Hollow protein tubes
Support and shape
Move organelles
Form centriole & spindle
Form cilia & flagella
Microfilaments-Cell movement & support
Cytoplasmic streaming
In muscle cells, contract
What are plastids?
Leucoplasts store starch
Chromoplasts store pigment
Chloroplasts trap light for photosynthesis

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