Glossary of Cell Cycle and Intro to Genetics biology 1

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reproductive cells such as sperm and eggs
Somatic Cells
Body belonging
devision of the genetic material that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to their parent.
division of cytoplasm, occur right after telophase I, forming two haploid daughter cells
threadlike structures, Consists of a single, long DNA double helix that is wrapped around proteins.
encodes the cells hereditary information, or genetic material.
Mitotic Phase
Dividing phase
G1,S,G2 During G1 and G2 the compents grow. S phase duplicated genetic material DNA
is a segment of DNA that contains the information for synthesizing a particular polypeptide or RNA molecule.
In a chromosome the globular proteins that the DNA is associated with.
In eukaryotes the DNA-protein complex
Chromatid (sister Chromatid)
Each of the DNA copies in a replicated chromosome. Sister are copies of same chromosome
The two chromatids are joined together along the entire length as well at a specialized region
Interphase, Prophase, Prometa phase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
Chromosome already replicated during interphase, chromosome condense into compact structures. Makred by mitotic spindle
Mitotic Spindle
Is a structure that produces mechanical forces that pull chromosomes into the daughter cells during mitosis. First Created during Prophase. Consists of array of microtubles.
Spindle Fibers
The groups of microtubles that attach to the chromosomes
The microtuble-organzation center responsible for mitotic spindle formation
found in centrosomes
Nuclear envelope breaks down nucleolus disappears. Spindle fibers connect to each chromosome at locations called kinetochore
Location that spindle fibers attach to sister chromotids. Located at centromere region
(middle phase), animal centrosomes completer their migration to oppisite sides of cell and chromosomes complete migration to the middle.
Metaphase plate
When metaphase is over the chromosomes are lined up at imaginary line plane
Sister chromatids seperate. Chromosomes are pulled to oppisite sides of cell.
(end phase) a nuclear envelope begins to form around each set of chromosomes. The mitotic spindle disintegrates.
Sperm Cell
A male reproductive cell
Egg Cell
A female reproductive cell
The process of uniting sperm and egg
Newly growing offspring
is nuclear division thta leads to halving of chromosome number.
Homologous chromosomes (homologs)
Two chromosomes that have the same size and shape. a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, which carry genes for the same traits, in the same order. In a karyotype, the members of a homologous pair look alike, for example, the pair of chromosome 1 look alike
Sex Chromosomes
Chromosomes that designate sex.
All non-sex chromosomes
Different versions of a particular gene.
The number and types of chromosomes present. The chromosomal complement of a cell, individual or species often shown as a picture of chromosomes arranged in order from largest to smallest
a single set of chromosomes (half of the full set of genetic material). In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23
A full set of genetic material, consisting of paired chromosomes one chromosome from each parental set. Most animal cells except the gametes have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes. Compare haploid
The number and n is termed. The number of sets of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. For example, haploid means one set and diploid means two sets
Have three or more of each type of chromosome in each cell.
the process which the daughter cells from meiosis 1 and 2 form egg cells or sperm cells
The cell that results from fertiliztaion which is full complement of chromosomes. 1 set from mother 1 from fater.
Maternal Chromosomes
Come from the mother
Paternal chromosomes
come from the father
Crossing over
During prophase 1 non sister chromatids interact with each other to cross over.
two pairs of non-sister chromatids are brought close together and cause crossing over.
Role of Crossing over
Produces new combinations of alleles on the same chromosome.
Different versions of the same gene.
Alleles that are found in a particular individual
Gametes from different individuals combine to form offspring.
Metaphase I
Tetrads line up, chromosome of each pairs face the pole , homologous attached to microtubules form opp. pole
Anaphase I
Pairs of homologous chromosomes spilt up, sister chromatids remain attached.
Telophase I
each half has complete haploid set; chromosomes are still double.
between the end of M I and beginning of M II
no chromosome replicated
Prophase II
spindle forms, in late PII chromosomes still have two chromatids
Mataphase II
chromosome line up in the middle as in mitosis
Anaphase II
sister chromatids seperate, and move as two individual chromosomes toword opp. poles
Telophase II and cytokenesis
Nuclei forms , chromosome condensing. The meiotic division of one parent cell form 4 hapliod daughter cells with unreplicated chromosome
DNA replication
mito- occurs during interphase before mitosis begins
meio-occurs during interphase before meioI begins
Early Prophase 1
Chromosomes condense, spindle apparatus forms.
Pairing process of homologous chromosomes forming the tetrad
Late Prophase 1
non-sister chromatids begin to seperate, but still connected in X shape called Chiasma. Crossing over occured
Crossover forms an X-shaped structure of chromosomes
synapsis of homologous chromosomes
mito-doesn't occur
meio-occur during Prophase I, forming tetrads and crossing over
# of daughter cell and genetic composition
mito-two, each diploid(2n), identical to parent cell
meio-one, each haploid(n), genetically diff from parent cell and from each other
Number of divisions
mito-one including P,M,A,T
Meio-two including P,M,A,T
Role in animal body
Mito-produces cell growth and tissue repair; multicellular adult to arise from zygote
meio-Produces gametes, reduce chromosomes by half

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