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Glossary of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: vet tech

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diastole
dilatation of the ventricles
systole
contraction of the ventricles
ectopic
arising from an abnormal site
arrhythmia
irregularity of the normal heart rhythm
tachycardia
increased heart rate
bradycardia
decreased heart rate
flutter and fibrillation
rapid series of irregular contractions due to a disorganization of electrical activity and probably relating to an ectopic pregnancy
inotropic
affecting the force (strength) of heart contraction
chronotropic
affecting the rate of heart rhythm
cardiac
pertaining to the heart
afterload
resistance in arteries that must be overcome to empty the ventricles
preload
the volume of blood that fills the ventricles during diastole
dilatation
the myocardium becomes thin and ineffective in its pumping action
hypertrophy
the myocardium become thickened and restricts ventricular filling
output
the volume of blood pumped per minute of time; cardiac output can be estimated clinically by measuring heart rate, pulse quality, and capillary refill time (perfusion)
furosemide
Lasix®
digoxin
Lanoxin®
Cardoxin®
positive inotropes
increase the force or strength of heart contraction
negative inotropes
decrease the force of strength of heart contractions
positive chronotropes
increase the heart rate
negative chronotropes
decrease the heart rate
early signs of digoxin toxicity
anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea
group of drugs derived from the purple foxglove plant
digitalis glycoside or cardiac glycoside
Animals that digoxin toxicity is especially dangerous to
hypokalemic (low blood potassium due to diuretics used in cardiac therapy)
isoxsuprine
Vasodilan®
dobutamine
Dobutrex®
positive inotropes used to treat heart failure
dobutamine, glucagon, calcium
Cardiomyopathy
disease of heart muscle progressing to congestive heart failure that primarily affects dogs and cats
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
results when muscle wall of the heart thickens and reduces the size of the heart chamber until the ventricles cannot fill adequately with blood
(diastolic problem)
dilated cardiomyopathy
occurs when the muscle wall of the heart becomes thin and the heart loses its pumping action (systolic problem)
dilated cardiomyopathy is more common in these dog breeds
Doberman Pinscher, Great Dane, Irish Wolf Hound, St. Bernard, Bull Mastiff, Newfoundland, Golden Retriver, Irish Setter, Labrador Retriever
Name a complication of cardiomyopathy in cats
thromboembolism
Breeds of cats most prone to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Persian, Maine Coon
Breeds of cats more prone to dilated cardiomyopathy
Siamese, Burmese
Dietary cause for dilated cardiomyopathy in cats
taurine deficiency
premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
occurs when an ectopic focus is the ventricles causes the ventricles to contract too quickly (prematurely)
propranolol
Inderal®
atenolol
Tenormin®

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