Glossary of Cardiovascular Nursing
Other Decks By This User
- What are the four layers of the heart - inner to outer?
- Endocardium, Myocardium, Epicardium and the heart is surrounded by the Pericardium.
- What does the vascular system comprise of?
- What does the SA node do?
- It is the "pacemaker" of the heart initiating the electrical impulse that makes the heart contract.
- Describe Systole:
- the pumping CONTRAACTION of the blood out of the heart through the ventricles.
- Describe Diastole:
- to dilate or expand - the time during which the hearts chambers RELAX and fill with blood.
- What is BP?
- BP is the force of blood against the walls of arteries. Systole = as the heart beats over Diastole = as the heart relaxes between contractions.
- What is the equation for BP?
- BP= CO X SVR
- What is cardiac output?
- The amount of blood pumped per ventricle in 1 minute.
- What is Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)?
- Forces, such as the small arteries & arterioles that oppose the bloods movement.
- What is preload?
- The volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole (filling). Preload determines the amount of stretch placed on myocardial fibers.
- What is afterload?
- Peripheral resistance against which the L ventricle must pump.
- What does the SNS do in relation to regulating the cardiovascular system?
- SNS increases HR, increases the speed of the impulse through the AV node and increases the force of atrial and ventricular contractions.
- What does the PNS do in relation to regulating the cardiovascular system?
- PSN counteracts the SNS - decreases HR and slowing of the conduction through the AV node.
- What are baroreceptors?
- Receptors that are sensitive to stretch & pressure. Their stimulation results in temporary inhibition of SNS = decreased HR and peripheral vasodilation. Decreased arterial pressure results in the opposite. (incr. HR and vasoconstriction)
- Where are baroreceptors located?
- In the arch of aorta and carotid sinus.
- What are Chemoreceptors?
- Nerves located in the aortic arch & carotid sinus that sense changes in O2, pH or CO2 levels in the blood. When stimulated they increase cardiac activity.
- What is responsible for affecting both HR & BP?
- What are the leading causes of death among the elderly in North America?
- CAD (coronary artery disease)
- What does an increase in age lead to? (cardiac effects)
- Increase in collagen in the heart but a decrease in elastin, thus changing the contractility of the heart. As collagen degenerates, lipids build up & calcify in the aortic and mitral valves.
- What are the five ausculatory areas for a thorax assessment (of the heart)?
- What is some subjective data for a cardiovascular assessment?
- Past & present hx. of SOB, chest pain, syncope, edema, tobacco, ETOH, CVA, OTC drugs, herbals, steroids, illicit druge use.
- What are some objective findings for a cardiovascular assessment?
- Visual assessment, VS, PE, diagnostic & lab studies.
- Which heart sound would you hear in a patient w/CAD?
- What is a CXR for?
- Chest x-ray - indicates heart size &/or possibility of increased fluid surrounding the heart.
- What is a ECG for?
- Electrocardiogram - assesses cardiac function through electrical conductivity study (pqrst waves).
- What is an echocardiogram for?
- Visualization of the heart through ultrasound.
- What is an Exercise Treadmill Test for?
- It evaluates cardiac function through exercise testing.
- What is the most common nuclear cardiac test?
- Cardiolite (sestamibi) - evaluates blood flow in different parts of the heart.
- What does the PET do for cardiac testing?
- Distiniguishes viable from nonviable myocardial tissue.
- What is perfusion imaging?
- This may be used w/exercise testing but if exercise is not tolerated, Persantine is given to stimulate vessels and the effects of exercise on the heart. No caffeine/theophylline can be given w/in 12hrs.
- Name an invasive study regarding cardiac testing:
- Cardiac catheterization.
You must Login or Register to add cards