Glossary of CNS Infections and Body fluids
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- List 3 causes of CNS infections:
(what is most common?)
- 1. Hematogenous spread***
2. Nearby CNS infection; sinuses, otitis media.
3. Trauma, congenital, anatomic defects.
- Which age group has the highest prevalance of bacterial meningitis?
- Why do neonates get meningitis?
- 1. Inadequete BBB yet
2. Immune system
3. Vaginal canal passes it.
- What 4 bugs cause neonatal meningitis?
- 1. Beta strep group B
2. E. coli/other gnb
3. Listeria monocytogenes
4. Chyseobacterium meningosepticum
- What 3 bugs cause meningitis in kids under 5?
- 1. Haemophilus influenzae B
2. Strep pneumo
3. Neisseria meningitidis
- What 2 bugs cause meningitis in adults/older kids?
- 1. Neisseria meningitidis
2. Strep pneumo
- What is more common to cause meningitis in older kids?
- Neisseria meningitidis - epidemic in crowded conditions.
- What 3 organisms may cause meningitis in immunosuppressed patients?
- 1. Listeria monocytogenes
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- In what compromised patients would Listeria monocytog cause meningitis?
-those on Steroids
- In what compromised patients would P aeruginosa/Nocardia cause meningitis?
- What type of CNS infection do Anaerobes tend to cause?
- Brain abscess
- How do anaerobic brain abscesses tend to develop?
- 1. Spread from sinuses/otitis media.
2. Introduced by skull trauma
- What 4 actions should be taken when processing CSF?
- 1. STAT STAT STAT
2. DON'T REFRIGERATE
3. IF MUST HOLD, 37'C
4. CALL DOC IMMEDIATELY IF POSITIVE DIRECT SMEAR/GROWTH
- What should be kept in mind re: prescribing drugs for meningitis/abscesses?
- Use drugs that cross the BBB.
- What 2 infections are seen in bones and synovial fluid?
- 1. Osteomyelitis
2. Septic arthritis
- What specimen should be obtained for osteomyelitis?
- What specimen should be obtained for septic arthritis?
- -Synovial fluid
- How does osteomyelitis develop?
- -Hematogenous spread from another site - Staph aureus
-Contiguous from adjacent abscess/deep wound
- What 3 bacteria cause Septic arthritis? What percentage?
- 1. Staph aureus - 70%
2. Neiss. gonorrhoeae
3. Haemophilus influenzae
- In whom does GC cause gonococcal arthritis?
- Adults under 30
- In whom does H. influenzae cause arthritis?
- What should be set up for synovial fluids from adults or children?
- Chocolate agar
- What type of organism is usually obtained from pericardial fluid?
- What organisms usually are obtained from thoracentesis?
- Pneumonia agents.
- If the peritoneal fluid (ascites) is infiltrated, what is the usual cause?
- -Perforated bowel
- What condition may cause perforation of the bowels?
- CAPD - continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
- What bug usually causes an infection in CAPD?
- Skin flora, just from the continuous open wound at dialyzing site.
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