Glossary of CJ Flashcards
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- Conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or of a local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse.
- Social Control
- The use of sanctions and rewards available througha group to influence and shape the behaviour of individual members of that group. Social control is a primary concern of social groups and communities, and it is the interest that human groups hold in the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil statutes.
- Individual Rights Advocates
- Those who seek to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.
- Public Order Advocates
- Those who suggest that, under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of a society should take precedence over individual rights.
- Individual Rights
- Those rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the US Constitution(especially as found in the first 10 amendments to the constitution, known as the Bill of Rights). These rights are especially important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the criminal justice system.
- The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity.
- Criminal Justice
- The criminal law, the law of criminal procedure, and that array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of the criminal law. Criminal justice cannot be separated from social justice because the kind of justice enacted in our nation's criminal courts is a reflection of basic American understandings of right and wrong.
- Civil Justice
- The civil law, the law of civil procedure, and that array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil justice cannot be separated from social justice because the kind of justice enacted in our nation's civil courts is a reflection of basic American understandings of right and wrong.
- Social Justice
- An ideal which embraces all aspects of civilized life and which is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
- Criminal Justice System
- The aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform criminal justice functions. The basic divisions of criminal justice are law enforcement, courts and corrections.
- Consensus Model
- A perspective on the study of criminal justice which assumes that the system's subcomponents work together harmoniously to achieve that social product we call justice.
- Conflict Model
- A perspective on the study of criminal justice which assumes that the system's subcomponents function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this theoretical framework, justice is more a product of conflicts among agencies within the system than it is the result of cooperation among component agencies.
- Any of a number of writs issued by a judicial officer that direct a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affords protection from damages if he or she performs it.
- A law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person, place, the time and reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority.
- The money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody.
- Preliminary Hearing
- The proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided: whether a crime was committed, whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court, and whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
- Probable Cause
- A legal criterion residing in a set of facts and circumstances which would cause a reasonable person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime. Probable cause refers to the necessary level of belief which would allow for police seizures (arrests) of individuals and searches of dwellings, vehicles and possessions.
- A formal, written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a specified person(s) has committed a specifi offense(s), usually a felony.
- (1) The hearing before the court having jurisdiction in a criminal case, in which the identity of the defendant is established, the defendant is informed of the charge(s) and of his or her rights, and the defendant is required to enter a plea. (2) In some usages, any appearance in court prior to criminal proceedings.
- The examination in a court of the issues of fact and law in a case for the purpose of reaching a judgement of conviction or acquittal of the defendant(s).
- Consecutive Sentence
- (1) A sentence that is one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and that is served in sequence with the other sentences, or (2) a new sentence for a new conviction, imposed upon a person already under sentence(s), which is added to a previous sentence(s), thus increasing the maximum time the offender may be confined or under supervision.
- When did criminal justice make its debut as an academic discipline?
- 1930s-August Vollmer-Persuaded Berkeley to offer courses
- What was criminal justice in its early days?
- Practice Oriented-On the job training
- How did criminal justice studies develop in the 1960s?
- Turbulent time, vastly increased crime rates as drugs became more widespread. Society became more concerned with justice. LEEP LEAA
- The Safe Streets Act led to the creation of which institute?
- National Institute of Justice
- What is the central part of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ)'s mission?
- Support research in the criminal justice field through funding for scientific research into all aspects of the discipline.
- What information does the Sherman Report contain?
- Meta-Analysis US Congress 1997-What works, what doesnt and what is promising.
- What were the Sherman Report's conclusions regarding some of the most popular programs in the U.S. criminal justice system?
- Little impact on crime rates in the US
- What was the Sherman Report's most important finding?
- Difficult to assess federally funded crime-prevention programs due to lack of scientific study
- Concurrent Sentence
- (1) A sentence that is one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time after conviction for more than one offense and to be served at the same time; or (2) a new sentence imposed upon a person already under sentence(s) for a previous offense(s) to be served at the same time as one or more of the previous sentences.
- Due Process
- A right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments of the US Constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms which have been established for the protection of human rights. Annotaion: Due Process of law, in criminal proceedings, is generally understood to include the following basic elements; a law creating and defining the offense, an impartial tribunal having jurisdictional authority over the case, accusation in proper form, notice and opportunity to defend, trial according to established procedure, and discharge from all restraints or obligations unless convicted.
- Crime Control Model
- A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders.
- Due Process Model
- A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing.
- The scientific study of crime and causation, prevention, and the rehabilition and punishment of offenders.
- Supreme Court Interpretation of the Bill of Rights
- Assumed Innocent Until Proven Guilty
Against Unreasonable Search and Seizure
Against Arrest Without Probable Cause
Against Unreasonable Seizures of Personal Property
To Fair Questioning By Police
Prottection From Physical Harm Throughout the Justice Process
To Have An Attorney
To Trial By Jury
To Know the Charges
To Cross-Examine Prosecution Witnesses
To Speak and Present Witnesses
To Not Be Tried Twice For the Same Crime
Against Crual and Unusual Punishment
To Due Process
To A Speedy Trial
Against Excessive Bail
To Be Treated the Same As Others Regardless of Race, Sex, Religious Preference, and Other Personal Attributes
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