Glossary of CH 8 Muscle Tissue (CN)
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- Name the types of muscle
- The _________ is the connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber (cell). (innermost)
- The __________ encircles a group of muscle fibers, forming a ____________. (middle)
- perimysium & fascile
- The __________ encircles all the the fasicles to form the complete muscle. (outermost)
- A _______ is a cordlike extesion of 3 muscle linings (Endo, peri, and epimysium). It extends beyon the muscle tissue to connect the muscle to a bone or to other muscle
- A _____________ is a flat broad extension the the 3 muscle linings and serves the same function as a tendon
- Define sarcolemma
- also known a plama membrane of the muscle cell, is highly invaginated by transverse tubules that permeate the cell
- Stiated muscle cells are ____________. The nuclei lie along the _________ of the cell.
- Define myofibrils
- A slender striated strand of muscle tissue. Myofibrils occur in groups of branching threads running parallel to the cellular long axis.
- Myofibrils consist of two types of filament, name them
- Myosin (thick filament)
Actin (thin filament)
- Actin contains two importand molecules that covers special binding sites, name them
- Troponin & Tropomyosin
- Myosin has a protruding head which is instrumental is what?
- It is the binding head that attaches to actin.
(forming cross bridges)
- ______ binds to a myosin head and forms ________
- When ATP binds to the myosin head it is converted to __________
- ADP and Pi
- __________ exposes the binding sties on the actin filaments.
- Ca2+ binds to the _________ molecule causing ____________ to expose positions on the actin filament for the attachment of myosin heads.
- __________ ________ between the myosin heads and actin filaments form.
- Cross bridges
- When the attachment sites on the ______ are exposed, the ___________ heads bind to the ______to form crossbridges
- ________ and _____ are released and sliding motion of actin results.
- ______ causes the cross bridge to unbind
- Without the addition of new ATP molecule, the cross bridge remain attached to the actin filaments. This is the cause of what?
- Rigor Mortis
- _________ or _________ separates the neuron from a muscle cell or another neuron
- Synapse or synaptic cleft
- Action potential generates the release of ______________
- When an action potential of a neuron reaches the ______________ __________, the neuron sceretes the neurotransmitter________, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft
- neuromuscular junctiion
- Action potential is generated on the _________ ____ ______ and throughout the __ ______.
- Motor end plate
- ___________ on the motor end plate, a highly folded region of the sarcolemma, intiate and _________ _________.
- The actiion potential travels along the sarcolemma througout the ________ ________ of __________
tubules (T tubuels)
- The _________ ____________ release _____. As a result of the AP troughout the T tubules
- Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
- The _______ released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to ________ molecules on the actin helix prompting _______ molecules to expose ________ sites for ______ crossbridge formation.
- If __________ is available muscle contraction begins
- Name the phases of muscle contraction
- The latent period is the time for the release of_____.
- The contraction period represents the time during actual _________ ____________
- muscle contraction
- The relaxation period is the time during which ___ is returned to the _________ ________ bye active transport.
- The refactory period is the time immediatley following a stimulus during which the muscle fiber will ________ ___________ to a second stimulus.
- not responds
- A _______ ________ is the time required for the release of Ca+
- Latent Period
- The _________ ________ represents the time during actual muscle contraction
- Contraction Period
- The ________ _________ is the time during which Ca+ is returned to the __________ __________ by ___________ _________.
- Relaxation Period
- The _________ __________ is the time immediately following a stimulus during which time the muscle fiber will not respond to a second stimulus.
- Refractory Period
- Name the factors that contribute to the strength and maximum duration of a muscle contraction
- 1. Frequency of stimuli
2. Strength of stimulus
3. Length of muscle fiber contraction
4. Type of muscle & fiber type
5. Muscle tone & fatigue
- For muscle to contract ATP must be available name the source of ATP
- 1. ATP from within the cell
2. ATP from creatine Phosphate
3. ATP from glucose within cell
4. ATP obtained from glucose and fatty acids obtained from blood.
- __________ __________ is the process by which ATP is obtained from energy-rich molecules/
- Cellular respiration
- In _________, glucose is broken down to _______ acid, and two ATP molecules are generated
- Glycolysis is called and _________ process, because no ___ is used during the metabolic process.
- In Anarerobic respiration, pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) is converted to _________ ________.
- Lactic Acid
- In anaerobic respiration ________ _________ accumulates and leads to muscle fatigue.
- lactic acid
- Fast-twitch fibers contract rapidly, fatigue rapidly, and are highly vascularized. TRUE or FALSE?
- In muscle contractions, the length of the muscle always shortens. TRUE or FALSE?
- The _______ ________ is the time immediately following a stimulus where the muscle will not respond to a second stimulus.
- refractory period
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