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Glossary of CH 17 Respiratory (CN)

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Define pulmonary ventilation
is the process of breathing-inspiration (inhaling air) and expiration (exhaling air)
Define external respiration
is the process of gas exchange between the lungs and the blood.
Define internal respiration
is the process of gas exchange between the blood the interstial fluid and the cells. Inside the cell, cellular respiration generates energy (ATP), using O2 and glucose and porducing waster CO2.
Give Boyle's law
describes the relationship between the pressure (P) and the volume (V) of a gas. The law states that if the volume increase, the the pressure must decrease
Give Dalton's law
states the the sum of the partial pressure of each gas in a mixture is equal to the total pressure of the mixture
Give Henry's law
the greater the partial presssure of a gas, the greater the diffusion of the gas into the liquid.
Charles' law
If a volume is held constant, pressure is proportional to temperature
Define Tidal Volume (TV)
The amount of air inspired during normal relaxed breathing, about 500ml.
Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Is the additional air that can be forcibly exhaled after the expiration of a normal tidal volume, about 3,000ml.
Define Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
is the additional air that can be forcibly exhaled after the expiration of a normal tidal volume, about 1,200ml.
Define Residual Volume (RV)
is the volume of air still remaining in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is exhaled, about 1,200ml.
Define Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Is the maximun amount of air that can fill the lungs, about 6,000ml. TLC=TV+IRV+ERV+RV)
Define Vital Capacity (VC)
Is the total amount of air that can be expired after full inhaling, about 4,800ml. (VC=TV+IRV+ERV=approximately 80% TLC)
Define Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
is the maximum amount of air that can be inspired, about 3,600ml. (IC=TV+IRV)
Define Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration (FRC=RV+ERV)
Define Inspiration
Occurs went the inpiratory muscles-that is the diapragm and the external intercostal muscles contract.
Define Expiration
Occurs went the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax.
Give the properties of O2 as it applies to gas exchange
The partial pressure of o2 in the lungs is high, but solubility is poor.
Give the properties of CO2 as it applies to gas exchange
The partial pressure of COs in the air is extremely low, but its solubility is 24 times that of O2.

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